N2 Supplement-A

For neural and pancreatic differentiation of mouse and human ES and iPS cells

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N2 Supplement-A

For neural and pancreatic differentiation of mouse and human ES and iPS cells

5 mL
Catalog #07152
89 USD


N2 Supplement-A, containing iron-rich human transferrin, was developed for the in vitro differentiation of mouse or human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to neural and pancreatic-like cell types. Different neuronal subtypes can be generated when human ES/iPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells are cultured in BrainPhys™ Neuronal Medium (Catalog #05790) supplemented with N2 Supplement-A, NeuroCult™ SM1 Neuronal Supplement (Catalog #05711), and other factors. N2 Supplement-A is provided as a 100X stock solution.

N2 Supplement-A is available for individual sale or as a component of the BrainPhys™ Neuronal Medium N2-A & SM1 Kit (Catalog #05793).
• Recombinant human insulin
• Human holo-transferrin (iron-saturated)
• Sodium selenite
• Putrescine
• Progesterone
• Other ingredients
Cell Type:
Pluripotent Stem Cells; Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells; Pancreatic Cells; Neural Cells, PSC-Derived; Endoderm, PSC-Derived
Mouse; Human
Cell Culture; Differentiation
Area of Interest:
Neuroscience; Stem Cell Biology; Disease Modeling

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Educational Materials


Product Applications

This product is designed for use in the following research area(s) as part of the highlighted workflow stage(s). Explore these workflows to learn more about the other products we offer to support each research area.

Data and Publications


Viruses 2020 mar

Modelling Lyssavirus Infections in Human Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cultures.

V. Sundaramoorthy et al.


Rabies is a zoonotic neurological infection caused by lyssavirus that continues to result in devastating loss of human life. Many aspects of rabies pathogenesis in human neurons are not well understood. Lack of appropriate ex-vivo models for studying rabies infection in human neurons has contributed to this knowledge gap. In this study, we utilize advances in stem cell technology to characterize rabies infection in human stem cell-derived neurons. We show key cellular features of rabies infection in our human neural cultures, including upregulation of inflammatory chemokines, lack of neuronal apoptosis, and axonal transmission of viruses in neuronal networks. In addition, we highlight specific differences in cellular pathogenesis between laboratory-adapted and field strain lyssavirus. This study therefore defines the first stem cell-derived ex-vivo model system to study rabies pathogenesis in human neurons. This new model system demonstrates the potential for enabling an increased understanding of molecular mechanisms in human rabies, which could lead to improved control methods.
Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology 2020

Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cerebellar Neurons in the Absence of Co-culture.

T. P. Silva et al.


The cerebellum plays a critical role in all vertebrates, and many neurological disorders are associated with cerebellum dysfunction. A major limitation in cerebellar research has been the lack of adequate disease models. As an alternative to animal models, cerebellar neurons differentiated from pluripotent stem cells have been used. However, previous studies only produced limited amounts of Purkinje cells. Moreover, in vitro generation of Purkinje cells required co-culture systems, which may introduce unknown components to the system. Here we describe a novel differentiation strategy that uses defined medium to generate Purkinje cells, granule cells, interneurons, and deep cerebellar nuclei projection neurons, that self-formed and differentiated into electrically active cells. Using a defined basal medium optimized for neuronal cell culture, we successfully promoted the differentiation of cerebellar precursors without the need for co-culturing. We anticipate that our findings may help developing better models for the study of cerebellar dysfunctions, while providing an advance toward the development of autologous replacement strategies for treating cerebellar degenerative diseases.
American journal of human genetics 2019

Mutations in ACTL6B Cause Neurodevelopmental Deficits and Epilepsy and Lead to Loss of Dendrites in Human Neurons.

S. Bell et al.


We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G{\textgreater}A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 2018

Patch-Seq Protocol to Analyze the Electrophysiology, Morphology and Transcriptome of Whole Single Neurons Derived From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

M. van den Hurk et al.


The human brain is composed of a complex assembly of about 171 billion heterogeneous cellular units (86 billion neurons and 85 billion non-neuronal glia cells). A comprehensive description of brain cells is necessary to understand the nervous system in health and disease. Recently, advances in genomics have permitted the accurate analysis of the full transcriptome of single cells (scRNA-seq). We have built upon such technical progress to combine scRNA-seq with patch-clamping electrophysiological recording and morphological analysis of single human neurons in vitro. This new powerful method, referred to as Patch-seq, enables a thorough, multimodal profiling of neurons and permits us to expose the links between functional properties, morphology, and gene expression. Here, we present a detailed Patch-seq protocol for isolating single neurons from in vitro neuronal cultures. We have validated the Patch-seq whole-transcriptome profiling method with human neurons generated from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs) derived from healthy subjects, but the procedure may be applied to any kind of cell type in vitro. Patch-seq may be used on neurons in vitro to profile cell types and states in depth to unravel the human molecular basis of neuronal diversity and investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying brain disorders.
Frontiers in neuroscience 2018

Ion Beam Assisted E-Beam Deposited TiN Microelectrodes-Applied to Neuronal Cell Culture Medium Evaluation.

T. Ryyn\anen et al."


Microelectrode material and cell culture medium have significant roles in the signal-to-noise ratio and cell well-being in in vitro electrophysiological studies. Here, we report an ion beam assisted e-beam deposition (IBAD) based process as an alternative titanium nitride (TiN) deposition method for sputtering in the fabrication of state-of-the-art TiN microelectrode arrays (MEAs). The effects of evaporation and nitrogen flow rates were evaluated while developing the IBAD TiN deposition process. Moreover, the produced IBAD TiN microelectrodes were characterized by impedance, charge transfer capacity (CTC) and noise measurements for electrical properties, AFM and SEM for topological imaging, and EDS for material composition. The impedance (at 1 kHz) of brand new 30 $\mu$m IBAD TiN microelectrodes was found to be double but still below 100 k$\Omega$ compared with commercial reference MEAs with sputtered TiN microelectrodes of the same size. On the contrary, the noise level of IBAD TiN MEAs was lower compared with that of commercial sputtered TiN MEAs in equal conditions. In CTC IBAD TiN electrodes (3.3 mC/cm2) also outperformed the sputtered counterparts (2.0 mC/cm2). To verify the suitability of IBAD TiN microelectrodes for cell measurements, human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neuronal networks were cultured on IBAD TiN MEAs and commercial sputtered TiN MEAs in two different media: neural differentiation medium (NDM) and BrainPhys (BPH). The effect of cell culture media to hPSC derived neuronal networks was evaluated to gain more stable and more active networks. Higher spontaneous activity levels were measured from the neuronal networks cultured in BPH compared with those in NDM in both MEA types. However, BPH caused more problems in cell survival in long-term cultures by inducing neuronal network retraction and clump formation after 1-2 weeks. In addition, BPH was found to corrode the Si3N4 insulator layer more than NDM medium. The developed IBAD TiN process gives MEA manufacturers more choices to choose which method to use to deposit TiN electrodes and the medium evaluation results remind that not only electrode material but also insulator layer and cell culturing medium have crucial role in successful long term MEA measurements.