The mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of three major neural cell types: neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. See MoreNeurons, of which there are many different subtypes, transmit information through action potentials and neurotransmitters. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (types of glial cells) provide critical support for optimal neuronal function and survival. Studying the lesser-known, but equally important roles, of glial cells has emerged as an exciting research field in the neuroscience community.
For a long time it was thought that the adult mammalian CNS was incapable of generating new neurons, making it near-impossible to repair tissue damage caused by disease or injury. Now, there is strong evidence that multipotent neural stem cells do exist in the mature mammalian CNS. This discovery has fuelled a new era of research into understanding the tremendous potential these cells hold for treatment of CNS diseases and injuries. Multipotent neural stem-like cells have also been successfully isolated from different grades and types of brain tumors, supporting the stem cell hypothesis of cancer.
Traditionally, rodents have been popular model organisms for neurological disease research, owing to the difficulty of obtaining human brain tissue for experimental studies; however, because of differences in brain development and signaling pathways, these animal models may not be fully representative of human disease pathology. Consequently, researchers have begun to use human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), to generate more representative models for studyingLess
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Human Umbilical Cord Plasma Proteins Revitalize Hippocampal Function in Aged Mice
"The authors hypothesized that plasma of an early developmental stage, namely umbilical cord plasma, provides a reservoir of such plasticity-promoting proteins. They showed that human cord plasma treatment revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice."Neural Cell News Volume 11.15, April 19, 2017. Read full issue at