SB431542 is a selective and potent inhibitor of the TGF-β/Activin/NODAL pathway that inhibits ALK5 (IC₅₀ = 94 nM), ALK4 (IC₅₀ = 140 nM), and ALK7 by competing for the ATP binding site. It does not inhibit the BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6 (Inman et al.; Laping et al.). This product is supplied as the hydrate form of the molecule.
· Replaces SOX2 in the reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (Ichida et al.).
· Increases the efficiency of reprogramming human somatic cells to iPS cells, in combination with PD0325901 and Thiazovivin (Lin et al.).
· Direct lineage reprogramming of fibroblasts to mature neurons, in combination with CHIR99021, ISX-9, Forskolin, and I-BET151 (Li et al.).
· Promotes differentiation of neural progenitor cells from human PSCs, in combination with either LDN193189 or Noggin (Chambers et al. 2009, Chambers et al. 2012).
· Promotes proliferation and sheet formation of mouse embryonic stem (ES)-derived endothelial cells (Watabe et al.).
· Enhances differentiation of cardiomyocytes from mouse and human PSCs (Kattman et al.).
· Inhibits the self-renewal and causes differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), demonstrating the importance of the TGF-β/Activin/NODAL pathway in their maintenance (James et al., Vallier et al.).
Directed Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells
Small Molecules, Big Impact in Pluripotent Stem Cell Research
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Recently, direct reprogramming between divergent lineages has been achieved by the introduction of regulatory transcription factors. This approach may provide alternative cell resources for drug discovery and regenerative medicine, but applications could be limited by the genetic manipulation involved. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts can be directly converted into neuronal cells using only a cocktail of small molecules, with a yield of up to textgreater90% being TUJ1-positive after 16 days of induction. After a further maturation stage, these chemically induced neurons (CiNs) possessed neuron-specific expression patterns, generated action potentials, and formed functional synapses. Mechanistically, we found that a BET family bromodomain inhibitor, I-BET151, disrupted the fibroblast-specific program, while the neurogenesis inducer ISX9 was necessary to activate neuron-specific genes. Overall, our findings provide a proof of principle" for chemically induced direct reprogramming of somatic cell fates across germ layers without genetic manipulation�
Nature biotechnology 2012 JUL
Combined small-molecule inhibition accelerates developmental timing and converts human pluripotent stem cells into nociceptors.
Chambers SM et al.
Considerable progress has been made in identifying signaling pathways that direct the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specialized cell types, including neurons. However, differentiation of hPSCs with extrinsic factors is a slow, step-wise process, mimicking the protracted timing of human development. Using a small-molecule screen, we identified a combination of five small-molecule pathway inhibitors that yield hPSC-derived neurons at textgreater75% efficiency within 10 d of differentiation. The resulting neurons express canonical markers and functional properties of human nociceptors, including tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant, SCN10A-dependent sodium currents and response to nociceptive stimuli such as ATP and capsaicin. Neuronal fate acquisition occurs about threefold faster than during in vivo development, suggesting that use of small-molecule pathway inhibitors could become a general strategy for accelerating developmental timing in vitro. The quick and high-efficiency derivation of nociceptors offers unprecedented access to this medically relevant cell type for studies of human pain.
Cell stem cell 2011 FEB
Stage-specific optimization of activin/nodal and BMP signaling promotes cardiac differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cell lines.
Kattman SJ et al.
Efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to a variety of lineages requires step-wise approaches replicating the key commitment stages found during embryonic development. Here we show that expression of PdgfR-α segregates mouse ESC-derived Flk-1 mesoderm into Flk-1(+)PdgfR-α(+) cardiac and Flk-1(+)PdgfR-α(-) hematopoietic subpopulations. By monitoring Flk-1 and PdgfR-α expression, we found that specification of cardiac mesoderm and cardiomyocytes is determined by remarkably small changes in levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signaling. Translation to human ESCs and iPSCs revealed that the emergence of cardiac mesoderm could also be monitored by coexpression of KDR and PDGFR-α and that this process was similarly dependent on optimal levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signaling. Importantly, we found that individual mouse and human pluripotent stem cell lines require optimization of these signaling pathways for efficient cardiac differentiation, illustrating a principle that may well apply in other contexts.
Cell stem cell 2009 NOV
A small-molecule inhibitor of tgf-Beta signaling replaces sox2 in reprogramming by inducing nanog.
Ichida JK et al.
The combined activity of three transcription factors can reprogram adult cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the transgenic methods used for delivering reprogramming factors have raised concerns regarding the future utility of the resulting stem cells. These uncertainties could be overcome if each transgenic factor were replaced with a small molecule that either directly activated its expression from the somatic genome or in some way compensated for its activity. To this end, we have used high-content chemical screening to identify small molecules that can replace Sox2 in reprogramming. We show that one of these molecules functions in reprogramming by inhibiting Tgf-beta signaling in a stable and trapped intermediate cell type that forms during the process. We find that this inhibition promotes the completion of reprogramming through induction of the transcription factor Nanog.
Nature methods 2009 NOV
A chemical platform for improved induction of human iPSCs.
Lin T et al.
The slow kinetics and low efficiency of reprogramming methods to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) impose major limitations on their utility in biomedical applications. Here we describe a chemical approach that dramatically improves (200-fold) the efficiency of iPSC generation from human fibroblasts, within seven days of treatment. This will provide a basis for developing safer, more efficient, nonviral methods for reprogramming human somatic cells.
Nature … 2009 MAR
Highly efficient neural conversion of human ES and iPS cells by dual inhibition of SMAD signaling
Chambers SMSM et al.
Current neural induction protocols for human embryonic stem (hES) cells rely on embryoid body formation, stromal feeder co-culture or selective survival conditions. Each strategy has considerable drawbacks, such as poorly defined culture conditions, protracted differentiation and low yield. Here we report that the synergistic action of two inhibitors of SMAD signaling, Noggin and SB431542, is sufficient to induce rapid and complete neural conversion of textgreater80% of hES cells under adherent culture conditions. Temporal fate analysis reveals the appearance of a transient FGF5(+) epiblast-like stage followed by PAX6(+) neural cells competent to form rosettes. Initial cell density determines the ratio of central nervous system and neural crest progeny. Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into midbrain dopamine and spinal motoneurons confirms the robustness and general applicability of the induction protocol. Noggin/SB431542-based neural induction should facilitate the use of hES and hiPS cells in regenerative medicine and disease modeling and obviate the need for protocols based on stromal feeders or embryoid bodies.
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