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Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a monomeric cytokine that was originally identified as a T cell growth factor (Gaffen & Liu). It binds to heterotrimeric receptors consisting of CD25, CD122, and CD132. Upon binding, it activates JAK3-, STAT5-, and AKT-dependent signaling pathways, which results in cellular proliferation and survival (Ma et al.). The majority of IL-2 is secreted by activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, although B cells and dendritic cells were found to produce IL-2 in small amounts. IL-2 downregulates immune responses to prevent autoimmunity during thymic development, influences the development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, and affects development of follicular helper T cells. IL-2 also controls inflammation by inhibiting Th17 differentiation (Banchereau et al.). High IL-2 levels in serum are associated with progression of scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and gastric and non-small cell lung cancer, though no known disease can be directly attributed to the lack or excess of IL-2 (Gaffen & Liu).
Aldesleukin, Interleukin-2, T cell growth factor, TCGF
Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells, NK Cells, T Cells, T Cells, CD4+, T Cells, CD8+
(A) The biological activity of Human Recombinant IL-2 was tested by its ability to promote the proliferation of CTLL-2 cells. The EC50 is defined as the effective concentration of the cytokine at which cell proliferation is at 50% of maximum. The EC50 in the above example is 1.99 ng/mL.
(B) 1 μg of Human Recombinant IL-2 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (+) and non-reducing (-) conditions and visualized by Coomassie Blue staining. Human Recombinant IL-2 has a predicted molecular mass of 15.5 kDa.
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