Purmorphamine

Hedgehog pathway activator; Activates Smoothened (SMO)

Purmorphamine

Hedgehog pathway activator; Activates Smoothened (SMO)

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Hedgehog pathway activator; Activates Smoothened (SMO)
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Overview

Purmorphamine is a tri-substituted purine derivative that activates the Hedgehog pathway by directly binding to and activating the Hedgehog receptor Smoothened (EC₅₀ = 1 µM). (Sinha and Chen)

DIFFERENTIATION
· Promotes differentiation of ventral spinal progenitors and motor neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (Hu and Zhang, Karumbayaram et al., Li et al.).
· Promotes differentiation of osteoblasts from human and mouse mesenchymal cells (Beloti et al., Wu et al. 2002, Wu et al. 2004).
· Inhibits differentiation and maturation of adipocytes from human mesenchymal cells (Fontaine et al.).
Cell Type
Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells, Neural Cells, PSC-Derived, Osteoblasts, Pluripotent Stem Cells
Species
Human, Mouse, Non-Human Primate, Other, Rat
Application
Differentiation
Area of Interest
Neuroscience, Stem Cell Biology
CAS Number
483367-10-8
Chemical Formula
C₃₁H₃₂N₆O₂
Purity
≥ 98%
Pathway
Hedgehog
Target
SMO

Protocols and Documentation

Find supporting information and directions for use in the Product Information Sheet or explore additional protocols below.

Document Type
Product Name
Catalog #
Lot #
Language
Product Name
Purmorphamine
Catalog #
72204, 100-1049, 72202
Lot #
All
Language
English
Document Type
Safety Data Sheet
Product Name
Purmorphamine
Catalog #
72204, 72202
Lot #
All
Language
English
Document Type
Safety Data Sheet
Product Name
Purmorphamine
Catalog #
100-1049
Lot #
All
Language
English

Applications

This product is designed for use in the following research area(s) as part of the highlighted workflow stage(s). Explore these workflows to learn more about the other products we offer to support each research area.

Resources and Publications

Publications (8)

Differentiation of spinal motor neurons from pluripotent human stem cells. Hu B-Y and Zhang S-C Nature protocols 2009 JAN

Abstract

We have devised a reproducible protocol by which human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are efficiently differentiated to functional spinal motor neurons. This protocol comprises four major steps. Pluripotent stem cells are induced to form neuroepithelial (NE) cells that form neural tube-like rosettes in the absence of morphogens in the first 2 weeks. The NE cells are then specified to OLIG2-expressing motoneuron progenitors in the presence of retinoic acid (RA) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) or purmorphamine in the next 2 weeks. These progenitor cells further generate post-mitotic, HB9-expressing motoneurons at the 5th week and mature to functional motor neurons thereafter. It typically takes 5 weeks to generate the post-mitotic motoneurons and 8-10 weeks for the production of functional mature motoneurons. In comparison with other methods, our protocol does not use feeder cells, has a minimum dependence on proteins (purmorphamine replacing SHH), has controllable adherent selection and is adaptable for scalable suspension culture.
Directed differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells generates active motor neurons. Karumbayaram S et al. Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 2009 APR

Abstract

The potential for directed differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to functional postmitotic neuronal phenotypes is unknown. Following methods shown to be effective at generating motor neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we found that once specified to a neural lineage, human iPS cells could be differentiated to form motor neurons with a similar efficiency as hESCs. Human iPS-derived cells appeared to follow a normal developmental progression associated with motor neuron formation and possessed prototypical electrophysiological properties. This is the first demonstration that human iPS-derived cells are able to generate electrically active motor neurons. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using iPS-derived motor neuron progenitors and motor neurons in regenerative medicine applications and in vitro modeling of motor neuron diseases.
Hedgehog signaling alters adipocyte maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Fontaine C et al. Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 2008 APR

Abstract

Human stem cells are powerful tools by which to investigate molecular mechanisms of cell growth and differentiation under normal and pathological conditions. Hedgehog signaling, the dysregulation of which causes several pathologies, such as congenital defects and cancer, is involved in several cell differentiation processes and interferes with adipocyte differentiation of rodent cells. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of Hedgehog pathway modulation on adipocyte phenotype using different sources of human mesenchymal cells, such as bone marrow stromal cells and human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells. We bring evidence that Hedgehog signaling decreases during human adipocyte differentiation. Inhibition of this pathway is not sufficient to trigger adipogenesis, but activation of Hedgehog pathway alters adipocyte morphology as well as insulin sensitivity. Analysis of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and expression of adipocyte marker genes indicate that activation of Hedgehog signaling by purmorphamine impairs adipogenesis. In sharp contrast to reports in rodent cells, the maturation process, but not the early steps of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, is affected by Hedgehog activation. Hedgehog interferes with adipocyte differentiation by targeting CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma2 expression, whereas PPARgamma1 level remains unaffected. Although Hedgehog pathway stimulation does not modify the total number of adipocytes, adipogenesis appears dramatically impaired, with reduced lipid accumulation, a decrease in adipocyte-specific markers, and acquisition of an insulin-resistant phenotype. This study indicates that a decrease in Hedgehog signaling is necessary but not sufficient to trigger adipocyte differentiation and unveils a striking difference in the adipocyte differentiation process between rodent and human mesenchymal stem cells.