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Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and the generation of neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. In synergy with other cytokines such as stem cell factor, IL-3, erythropoietin, and thrombopoietin, it also stimulates erythroid and megakaryocyte progenitors (Barreda et al.). GM-CSF is produced by multiple cell types, including stromal cells, Paneth cells, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, chondrocytes, and Th1 and Th17 T cells (Francisco-Cruz et al.). The receptor for GM-CSF (GM-CSFR) is composed of two subunits: the cytokine-specific α subunit (GMRα; CD116) and the common subunit βc (CD131) shared with IL-3 and IL-5 receptors (Broughton et al.). GM-CSFR is expressed on hematopoietic cells, including progenitor cells and immune cells, as well as non-hematopoietic cells. Recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) promotes the production of myeloid cells of the granulocytic (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils) and monocytic lineages in vivo. It has been tested for mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells and for treating chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the development of DCs that ingest, process, and present antigens to the immune system (Francisco-Cruz et al.). This product is animal component-free.
(A) The biological activity of Human Recombinant GM-CSF, ACF was tested by its ability to promote the proliferation of TF-1 cells. Cell
proliferation was measured after 48 hours of culture using a fluorometric assay method. The EC50 is defined as the effective
concentration of the cytokine at which cell proliferation is at 50% of maximum. The EC50 in the example above is 62 pg/mL.
(B) 1 μg of Human Recombinant GM-CSF, ACF was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (+) and non-reducing (-) conditions and
visualized by Coomassie Blue staining.
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