Ammonium Chloride Solution

Reagent for lysis of red blood cells

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Reagent for lysis of red blood cells
From: 27 USD


Ammonium Chloride Solution is recommended for the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs) in preparations of human and mouse peripheral blood, spleen, or bone marrow cells. It is buffered and optimized for gentle lysis of erythrocytes, with minimal effect on leukocytes. It does not contain a fixative agent, therefore leukocytes are viable following RBC lysis.
• 0.8% NH4Cl
• 0.1 mM EDTA in water, buffered with KHCO3 to achieve a final pH of 7.2 - 7.6

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This product is designed for use in the following research area(s) as part of the highlighted workflow stage(s). Explore these workflows to learn more about the other products we offer to support each research area.

Data and Publications


Nature communications 2019

Gene correction for SCID-X1 in long-term hematopoietic stem cells.

M. Pavel-Dinu et al.


Gene correction in human long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) could be an effective therapy for monogenic diseases of the blood and immune system. Here we describe an approach for X-linked sSevere cCombined iImmunodeficiency (SCID-X1) using targeted integration of a cDNA into the endogenous start codon to functionally correct disease-causing mutations throughout the gene. Using a CRISPR-Cas9/AAV6 based strategy, we achieve up to 20{\%} targeted integration frequencies in LT-HSCs. As measures of the lack of toxicity we observe no evidence of abnormal hematopoiesis following transplantation and no evidence of off-target mutations using a high-fidelity Cas9 as a ribonucleoprotein complex. We achieve high levels of targeting frequencies (median 45{\%}) in CD34+ HSPCs from six SCID-X1 patients and demonstrate rescue of lymphopoietic defect in a patient derived HSPC population in vitro and in vivo. In sum, our study provides specificity, toxicity and efficacy data supportive of clinical development of genome editing to treat SCID-Xl.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010 DEC

MicroRNA miR-125b causes leukemia.

Bousquet M et al.


MicroRNA miR-125b has been implicated in several kinds of leukemia. The chromosomal translocation t(2;11)(p21;q23) found in patients with myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia leads to an overexpression of miR-125b of up to 90-fold normal. Moreover, miR-125b is also up-regulated in patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying the t(11;14)(q24;q32) translocation. To decipher the presumed oncogenic mechanism of miR-125b, we used transplantation experiments in mice. All mice transplanted with fetal liver cells ectopically expressing miR-125b showed an increase in white blood cell count, in particular in neutrophils and monocytes, associated with a macrocytic anemia. Among these mice, half died of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or a myeloproliferative neoplasm, suggesting an important role for miR-125b in early hematopoiesis. Furthermore, coexpression of miR-125b and the BCR-ABL fusion gene in transplanted cells accelerated the development of leukemia in mice, compared with control mice expressing only BCR-ABL, suggesting that miR-125b confers a proliferative advantage to the leukemic cells. Thus, we show that overexpression of miR-125b is sufficient both to shorten the latency of BCR-ABL-induced leukemia and to independently induce leukemia in a mouse model.
Carcinogenesis 2009 SEP

Etoposide induces MLL rearrangements and other chromosomal abnormalities in human embryonic stem cells.

Bueno C et al.


MLL rearrangements are hallmark genetic abnormalities in infant leukemia known to arise in utero. They can be induced during human prenatal development upon exposure to etoposide. We also hypothesize that chronic exposure to etoposide might render cells more susceptible to other genomic insults. Here, for the first time, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were used as a model to test the effects of etoposide on human early embryonic development. We addressed whether: (i) low doses of etoposide promote MLL rearrangements in hESCs and hESCs-derived hematopoietic cells; (ii) MLL rearrangements are sufficient to confer hESCs with a selective growth advantage and (iii) continuous exposure to low doses of etoposide induces hESCs to acquire other chromosomal abnormalities. In contrast to cord blood-derived CD34(+) and hESC-derived hematopoietic cells, exposure of undifferentiated hESCs to a single low dose of etoposide induced a pronounced cell death. Etoposide induced MLL rearrangements in hESCs and their hematopoietic derivatives. After long-term culture, the proportion of hESCs harboring MLL rearrangements diminished and neither cell cycle variations nor genomic abnormalities were observed in the etoposide-treated hESCs, suggesting that MLL rearrangements are insufficient to confer hESCs with a selective proliferation/survival advantage. However, continuous exposure to etoposide induced MLL breaks and primed hESCs to acquire other major karyotypic abnormalities. These data show that chronic exposure of developmentally early stem cells to etoposide induces MLL rearrangements and make hESCs more prone to acquire other chromosomal abnormalities than postnatal CD34(+) cells, linking embryonic genotoxic exposure to genomic instability.