Recent advances in isolating epithelial progenitor cells and stromal cells, as well as defining niche factors important for lung development, have led to the establishment of an in vitro 3D lung culture system: pulmonary (lung) organoids.
Below is a collection of resources to support your pulmonary research.
Global organoid experts gathered in London, UK to discuss the current state of the technology, protocol standardization, translation into patient care, nomenclature, and understanding what questions a given organoid culture can and can't answer.Read Now >
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Key Applications of Pulmonary Organoids
Lung Stem Cell Biology
Barkauskas CE et al. (2013) Type 2 alveolar cells are stem cells in adult lung. J Clin Invest 123(7): 3025–36.
Frank DB et al. (2016) Emergence of a wave of Wnt signaling that regulates lung alveologenesis by controlling epithelial self-renewal and differentiation. Cell Rep 17(9): 2312–25.
Gao X et al. (2015) GRHL2 coordinates regeneration of a polarized mucociliary epithelium from basal stem cells. J Cell Biol 211(3): 669–82.
Jain R et al. (2015) Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung. Nat Commun 6: 6727.
Hegab AE et al. (2015) Mimicking the niche of lung epithelial stem cells and characterization of several effectors of their in vitro behavior. Stem Cell Res 15(1): 109–21.
Rock JR et al. (2009) Basal cells as stem cells of the mouse trachea and human airway epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(31): 12771–5.
Tadokoro T et al. (2014) IL-6/STAT3 promotes regeneration of airway ciliated cells from basal stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(35): E3641-9.
Tadokoro T et al. (2016) BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors. Development 143(5): 764–73.
Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Lung Organoids
Dye BR et al. (2015) In vitro generation of human pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids. Elife 4 4: e05098.
Gotoh S et al. (2014) Generation of alveolar epithelial spheroids via isolated progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Stem cell reports 3(3): 394–403.
Konishi S et al. (2016) Directed induction of functional multi-ciliated cells in proximal airway epithelial spheroids from human pluripotent stem cells. Stem cell reports 6(1): 18–25.
Cancer Research and Disease Modeling
Dai Y et al. (2016) YAP1 regulates ABCG2 and cancer cell side population in human lung cancer cells. Oncotarget. Epub ahead of print, DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.13686.
Quantius J et al. (2016) Influenza virus infects epithelial stem/progenitor cells of the distal lung: impact on Fgfr2b-driven epithelial repair. PLoS Pathog 12(6): e1005544.
Sun L et al. (2016) Tumor endothelial cells promote metastasis and cancer stem cell-like phenotype through elevated Epiregulin in esophageal cancer. Am J Cancer Res 6(10): 2277–88.
Co-Culture, Extra-Cellular Matrix (ECM) and Scaffolds
Lee J-H et al. (2014) Lung stem cell differentiation in mice directed by endothelial cells via a BMP4-NFATc1-thrombospondin-1 axis. Cell 156(3): 440–55.
Liang J et al. (2016) Hyaluronan and TLR4 promote surfactant-protein-C-positive alveolar progenitor cell renewal and prevent severe pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Nat Med 22(11): 1285–93.
Peng T et al. (2015) Hedgehog actively maintains adult lung quiescence and regulates repair and regeneration. Nature 526(7574): 578–82.
Shen Y et al. (2015) In vitro epithelial organoid generation induced by substrate nanotopography. Sci Rep 5: 9293.
Tan Q et al. (2017) Human airway organoid engineering as a step toward lung regeneration and disease modeling. Biomaterials 113: 118–32.
Lung Organoid Reviews
Dye BR et al. (2016) How to grow a lung: applying principles of developmental biology to generate lung lineages from human pluripotent stem cells. Curr Pathobiol Rep 4(2): 47–57.
Hogan BLM et al. (2014) Repair and regeneration of the respiratory system: complexity, plasticity, and mechanisms of lung stem cell function. Cell Stem Cell 15(2): 123–38.
Konar D et al. (2016) Lung-on-a-chip technologies for disease modeling and drug development. Biomed Eng Comput Biol 7(Suppl 1): 17–27.
Mou H et al. (2015) Personalized medicine for cystic fibrosis: establishing human model systems. Pediatr Pulmonol (S40): S14-23.
Schilders KAA et al. (2016) Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices. Respir Res 17(1): 44.