Dispase is a protease that is suitable for the gentle dissociation of a wide variety of tissues. Incubation of minced tissue with pre-warmed dispase and gentle agitation will liberate cells with minimal cell damage. Pre-warmed dispase can also be used to harvest cells from tissue culture plastic. Unlike trypsin, dispase is not inhibited by serum. Dispase activity is inhibited by EDTA and EGTA. Dispase should be removed from cell suspensions by centrifuging the cells followed by washing the cells with buffer or culture medium.
Standardized Solutions for Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cells
Mammary Epithelial Cells: Standardized Media and Reagents
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In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal 2016 SEP
Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into keratinocyte progenitors in vitro: an attempt with promise of clinical use.
Li H et al.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into all somatic lineages including stratified squamous epithelia. Thus, efficient methods are required to direct hESC differentiation to obtain a pure subpopulation for tissue engineering. The study aimed to assess the effects of retinoic acid (RA), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), and ascorbic acid (AA) on the differentiation of hESCs into keratinocyte progenitors in vitro. The first media contained AA and BMP4; the second contained RA, AA, and BMP4; the third was commercial-defined keratinocyte serum-free medium, which was used to differentiate H9 hESCs (direct approach) or embryoid bodies (EBs) (indirect approach) into keratinocyte progenitors. Real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and flow-cytometry were used to characterize the differentiated cells. Cells induced by AA + BMP4 + RA showed the typical epithelial morphology, while cells induced by AA + BMP4 showed multiple appearances. CK14 and p63 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions in the AA + BMP4 + RA-treated cells were higher than those of the AA + BMP4-treated cells (CK14: 22.4-fold; p63: 84.7-fold). Epithelial marker CK18 mRNA expressions at 14 d of differentiation and keratinocyte marker CK14 and transcription factor p63 mRNA expressions at 35 d of differentiation were higher in cells differentiated from hESCs compared with those differentiated from EBs (CK18 10.51 ± 3.26 vs. 6.67 ± 1.28; CK14 9.27 ± 3.61 vs. 5.32 ± 1.86; p63 0.73 ± 0.06 vs. 0.44 ± 0.12, all P textless 0.05) After hESC induction by AA+BMP4+RA, CK14 mRNA expression was upregulated after day 21, peaking by 35 d of differentiation. Combined RA, BMP4, and AA could effectively induce differentiation of hESCs into keratinocyte progenitors in vitro. These keratinocytes could be used for oral mucosa and skin tissue engineering.
Annals of hematology 2016 OCT
Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells as a potential source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplant in PNH patients.
Phondeechareon T et al.
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired hemolytic anemia caused by lack of CD55 and CD59 on blood cell membrane leading to increased sensitivity of blood cells to complement. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for PNH, however, lack of HLA-matched donors and post-transplant complications are major concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from patients are an attractive source for generating autologous HSCs to avoid adverse effects resulting from allogeneic HSCT. The disease involves only HSCs and their progeny; therefore, other tissues are not affected by the mutation and may be used to produce disease-free autologous HSCs. This study aimed to derive PNH patient-specific iPSCs from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), characterize and differentiate to hematopoietic cells using a feeder-free protocol. Analysis of CD55 and CD59 expression was performed before and after reprogramming, and hematopoietic differentiation. Patients' dermal fibroblasts expressed CD55 and CD59 at normal levels and the normal expression remained after reprogramming. The iPSCs derived from PNH patients had typical pluripotent properties and differentiation capacities with normal karyotype. After hematopoietic differentiation, the differentiated cells expressed early hematopoietic markers (CD34 and CD43) with normal CD59 expression. The iPSCs derived from HDFs of PNH patients have normal levels of CD55 and CD59 expression and hold promise as a potential source of HSCs for autologous transplantation to cure PNH patients.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A 2016 OCT
Efficient generation of endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells and characterization of their functional properties
Song W et al.
Although endothelial cells (ECs) have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), large-scale generation of hPSC-ECs remains challenging and their functions are not well characterized. Here we report a simple and efficient three-stage method that allows generation of approximately 98 and 9500 ECs on day 16 and day 34, respectively, from each human embryonic stem cell (hESC) input. The functional properties of hESC-ECs derived in the presence and absence of a TGF$$-inhibitory molecule SB431542 were characterized and compared with those of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Confluent monolayers formed by SB431542(+) hESC-ECs, SB431542(-) hESC-ECs, and HUVECs showed similar permeability to 10,000 Da dextran, but these cells exhibited striking differences in forming tube-like structures in 3D fibrin gels. The SB431542(+) hESC-ECs were most potent in forming tube-like structures regardless of whether VEGF and bFGF were present in the medium; less potent SB431542(-) hESC-ECs and HUVECs responded differently to VEGF and bFGF, which significantly enhanced the ability of HUVECs to form tube-like structures but had little impact on SB431542(-) hESC-ECs. This study offers an efficient approach to large-scale hPSC-EC production and suggests that the phenotypes and functions of hPSC-ECs derived under different conditions need to be thoroughly examined before their use in technology development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2016 JUN
Imbalance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic protein expression in iPSC-derived neurons from FOXG1(+/-) patients and in foxg1(+/-) mice.
Patriarchi T et al.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in either MECP2, CDKL5 or FOXG1. The precise molecular mechanisms that lead to the pathogenesis of RTT have yet to be elucidated. We recently reported that expression of GluD1 (orphan glutamate receptor $\$-1 subunit) is increased in iPSC-derived neurons obtained from patients with mutations in either MECP2 or CDKL5. GluD1 controls synaptic differentiation and shifts the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synapses toward the latter. Thus, an increase in GluD1 might be a critical factor in the etiology of RTT by affecting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the developing brain. To test this hypothesis, we generated iPSC-derived neurons from FOXG1(+/-) patients. We analyzed mRNA and protein levels of GluD1 together with key markers of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in these iPSC-derived neurons and in Foxg1(+/-) mouse fetal (E11.5) and adult (P70) brains. We found strong correlation between iPSC-derived neurons and fetal mouse brains, where GluD1 and inhibitory synaptic markers (GAD67 and GABA AR-$\$1) were increased, whereas the levels of a number of excitatory synaptic markers (VGLUT1, GluA1, GluN1 and PSD-95) were decreased. In adult mice, GluD1 was decreased along with all GABAergic and glutamatergic markers. Our findings further the understanding of the etiology of RTT by introducing a new pathological event occurring in the brain of FOXG1(+/-) patients during embryonic development and its time-dependent shift toward a general decrease in brain synapses.
Cell and Tissue Research 2016 JUL
Cell type of origin influences iPSC generation and differentiation to cells of the hematoendothelial lineage
Phetfong J et al.
The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a source of cells for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine is hampered by the limited efficiency and safety of the reprogramming procedure and the low efficiency of iPSC differentiation to specialized cell types. Evidence suggests that iPSCs retain an epigenetic memory of their parental cells with a possible influence on their differentiation capacity in vitro. We reprogramme three cell types, namely human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), to iPSCs and compare their hematoendothelial differentiation capacity. HUVECs and EPCs were at least two-fold more efficient in iPSC reprogramming than HDFs. Both HUVEC- and EPC-derived iPSCs exhibited high potentiality toward endothelial cell differentiation compared with HDF-derived iPSCs. However, only HUVEC-derived iPSCs showed efficient differentiation to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Examination of DNA methylation at promoters of hematopoietic and endothelial genes revealed evidence for the existence of epigenetic memory at the endothelial genes but not the hematopoietic genes in iPSCs derived from HUVECs and EPCs indicating that epigenetic memory involves an endothelial differentiation bias. Our findings suggest that endothelial cells and EPCs are better sources for iPSC derivation regarding their reprogramming efficiency and that the somatic cell type used for iPSC generation toward specific cell lineage differentiation is of importance.
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids 2016 JAN
TALENs Facilitate Single-step Seamless SDF Correction of F508del CFTR in Airway Epithelial Submucosal Gland Cell-derived CF-iPSCs.
Suzuki S et al.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive inherited disease associated with multiorgan damage that compromises epithelial and inflammatory cell function. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have significantly advanced the potential of developing a personalized cell-based therapy for diseases like CF by generating patient-specific stem cells that can be differentiated into cells that repair tissues damaged by disease pathology. The F508del mutation in airway epithelial cell-derived CF-iPSCs was corrected with small/short DNA fragments (SDFs) and sequence-specific TALENs. An allele-specific PCR, cyclic enrichment strategy gave ˜100-fold enrichment of the corrected CF-iPSCs after six enrichment cycles that facilitated isolation of corrected clones. The seamless SDF-based gene modification strategy used to correct the CF-iPSCs resulted in pluripotent cells that, when differentiated into endoderm/airway-like epithelial cells showed wild-type (wt) airway epithelial cell cAMP-dependent Cl ion transport or showed the appropriate cell-type characteristics when differentiated along mesoderm/hematopoietic inflammatory cell lineage pathways.
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