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IntestiCult™ Organoid Growth Medium (Mouse)

Cell culture medium for establishment and maintenance of mouse intestinal organoids

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IntestiCult™ Organoid Growth Medium (Mouse)

Cell culture medium for establishment and maintenance of mouse intestinal organoids

1 Kit
Catalog #06005
276 USD

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IntestiCult™ Organoid Growth Medium (Mouse) is a defined, serum-free cell culture medium for efficient establishment and long-term maintenance of mouse intestinal organoids.These organoids, or “mini-guts”, provide a convenient in vitro organotypic culture system for studying both the small and large intestinal epithelium and associated stem cell dynamics. Organoids grown in IntestiCult™ feature a polarized epithelium that contains all of the known cell types of the adult intestinal epithelium. Individual intestinal crypts rapidly form organoids when cultured in IntestiCult™ Organoid Growth Medium (Mouse). Applications of these cultures include studying the development and function of the normal and tumorigenic intestinal epithelium, modeling intestinal disease, and investigating stem cell properties and regenerative therapy approaches. Organoid culture enables convenient in vitro characterization of a system with strong physiological relevance to the adult intestine.
• Convenient, in vitro system that recapitulates the identity and organization of the adult intestinal epithelium, including intra- and intercellular signaling, self-propagating stem cell niche and functional transport into and out of the lumen
• Serum-free and defined medium formulation that delivers consistent results
• Enables generation of intestinal organoids in less than one week
• Simple format and easy-to-use protocol
  • IntestiCult™ OGM (Mouse) Basal Medium, 90 mL
  • IntestiCult™ OGM (Mouse) Supplement 1, 5 mL
  • IntestiCult™ OGM (Mouse) Supplement 2, 5 mL
Specialized Media
Cell Type:
Intestinal Cells
Cell Culture; Differentiation; Expansion; Maintenance; Organoid Culture
Area of Interest:
Cancer Research; Disease Modeling; Drug Discovery and Toxicity Testing; Epithelial Cell Biology; Stem Cell Biology
Serum-Free; Defined

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Data and Publications


Journal of cellular physiology 2017 SEP

Glucose stimulates intestinal epithelial crypt proliferation by modulating cellular energy metabolism.

Zhou W et al.


The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in nutrient absorption, hormone release and barrier function. Maintenance of the epithelium is driven by continuous cell renewal by stem cells located in the intestinal crypts. The amount and type of diet influence this process and result in changes in the size and cellular make-up of the tissue. The mechanism underlying the nutrient-driven changes in proliferation is not known, but may involve a shift in intracellular metabolism that allows for more nutrients to be used to manufacture new cells. We hypothesized that nutrient availability drives changes in cellular energy metabolism of small intestinal epithelial crypts that could contribute to increases in crypt proliferation. We utilized primary small intestinal epithelial crypts from C57BL/6J mice to study 1) the effect of glucose on crypt proliferation, and 2) the effect of glucose on crypt metabolism using an extracellular flux analyzer for real-time metabolic measurements. We found that glucose increased both crypt proliferation and glycolysis, and the glycolytic pathway inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) attenuated glucose-induced crypt proliferation. Glucose did not enhance glucose oxidation, but did increase the maximum mitochondrial respiratory capacity, which may contribute to glucose-induced increases in proliferation. Glucose activated Akt/HIF-1α signaling pathway, which might be at least in part responsible for glucose-induced glycolysis and cell proliferation. These results suggest that high glucose availability induces an increase in crypt proliferation by inducing an increase in glycolysis with no change in glucose oxidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Scientific reports 2017 MAY

Organoid-based epithelial to mesenchymal transition (OEMT) model: from an intestinal fibrosis perspective.

Hahn S et al.


The current in vitro or in vivo intestinal fibrosis models have many limitations. Recent advancements in the isolation and culturing of organoids has led to development of various three-dimensional (3D) intestinal disease models with in vivo physiology. In this study, we generated an organoid-based epithelial to mesenchymal transition (OEMT) model, which could be used as a novel intestinal fibrosis model. Intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) were isolated and cultured from the small intestines of normal mice. IEOs were treated with transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1) or Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to evaluate their phenotypic change. Raw 264.7 cells (macrophage) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide were co-cultured with IEOs in growth media with or without TGF-β1. TGF-β1 alone slightly induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the IEOs but mainly disrupted them. Macrophage released cytokines synergistically induced mesenchymal phenotypic changes in TGF-β1 stimulated intestinal organoids. TNF-α and TGF-β1 synergistically induced proliferation of mesenchymal cells as well as EMT in the IEOs. We generated a novel OEMT model based on our finding that TNF-α and TGF-β synergistically induce type 2 EMT in IEOs. This 3D EMT model with in vivo physiology could be used to study EMT associated intestinal fibrosis.
Mucosal immunology 2017 MAR

An LGG-derived protein promotes IgA production through upregulation of APRIL expression in intestinal epithelial cells.

Wang Y et al.


p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived protein, transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, leading to amelioration of intestinal injury and inflammation. To elucidate mechanisms by which p40 regulates mucosal immunity to prevent inflammation, this study aimed to determine the effects and mechanisms of p40 on regulation of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) expression in intestinal epithelial cells for promoting immunoglobulin A (IgA) production. p40 upregulated April gene expression and protein production in mouse small intestine epithelial (MSIE) cells, which were inhibited by blocking EGFR expression and kinase activity. Enteroids from Egfr(fl/fl), but not Egfr(fl/fl)-Vil-Cre mice with EGFR specifically deleted in intestinal epithelial cells, exhibited increased April gene expression by p40 treatment. p40-conditioned media from MSIE cells increased B-cell class switching to IgA(+) cells and IgA production, which was suppressed by APRIL receptor-neutralizing antibodies. Treatment of B cells with p40 did not show any effects on IgA production. p40 treatment increased April gene expression and protein production in small intestinal epithelial cells, fecal IgA levels, IgA(+)B220(+), IgA(+)CD19(+), and IgA(+) plasma cells in lamina propria of Egfr(fl/fl), but not of Egfr(fl/fl)-Vil-Cre, mice. Thus p40 upregulates EGFR-dependent APRIL production in intestinal epithelial cells, which may contribute to promoting IgA production.
Journal of lipid research 2017 JUN

Cholesterol auxotrophy and intolerance to ezetimibe in mice with SREBP-2 deficiency in the intestine.

Rong S et al.


Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) activates transcription of all genes needed for cholesterol biosynthesis. To study SREBP-2 function in intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-BP2(-/-) ) in which Cre recombinase ablates SREBP-2 in intestinal epithelia. Intestines of Vil-BP2(-/-) mice had reduced expression of genes required for sterol synthesis, in vivo sterol synthesis rates, and epithelial cholesterol contents. On a cholesterol-free diet, they displayed chronic enteropathy with histological abnormalities of both villi and crypts, growth restriction, and reduced survival that was prevented by supplementation of cholesterol in the diet. Likewise, SREBP-2-deficient enteroids required exogenous cholesterol for growth. Blockade of luminal cholesterol uptake into enterocytes with ezetimibe precipitated acutely lethal intestinal damage in Vil-BP2(-/-) mice, highlighting the critical interplay in the small intestine of sterol absorption via NPC1L1 and sterol synthesis via SREBP-2 in sustaining the intestinal mucosa. These data show that small intestine requires SREBP-2 to drive cholesterol synthesis that sustains the intestinal epithelia when uptake of cholesterol from the gut lumen is not available, and provide a unique example of cholesterol auxotrophy expressed in an intact, adult mammal.
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 2017 JUL

Absence of the NOD2 protein renders epithelia more susceptible to barrier dysfunction due to mitochondrial dysfunction.

Saxena A et al.


Irregular mitochondria structure and reduced ATP in some patients with IBD suggest that metabolic stress contributes to disease. Loss-of-function mutation in the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 gene is a major susceptibility trait for IBD. Hence, we assessed if loss of NOD2 further impairs the epithelial barrier function instigated by disruption of mitochondrial ATP synthesis via the hydrogen ionophore dinitrophenol (DNP). NOD2 protein (virtually undetectable in epithelia under basal conditions) was increased in T84 (human colon cell line) cells treated with noninvasive Escherichia coli + DNP (16 h). Increased intracellular bacteria in wild-type (WT) and NOD2 knockdown (KD) cells and colonoids from NOD2(-/-) mice were mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the MAPK ERK1/2 pathways as determined by cotreatment with the antioxidant mitoTEMPO and the ERK inhibitor U0126: ROS was upstream of ERK1/2 activation. Despite increased E. coli in DNP-treated NOD2 KD compared with WT cells, there were no differences in the internalization of fluorescent inert beads or dead E. coli particles. This suggests that lack of killing in the NOD2 KD cells was responsible for the increased numbers of viable intracellular bacteria; a conclusion supported by evidence of reduced autophagy in NOD2 KD T84 epithelia. Thus, in a two-hit hypothesis, decreased barrier function due to dysfunctional mitochondrial is amplified by lack of NOD2 in transporting enterocytes: subsequently, greater numbers of bacteria entering the mucosa would be a significant inflammatory threat especially since individuals with NOD2 mutations have compromised macrophage and Paneth cell responses to bacteria.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Increased internalization of bacteria by epithelia with dysfunctional mitochondria (reduced ATP) is potentiated if the cells lack nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), mutations in which are inflammatory bowel disease-susceptibility traits. Uptake of bacteria was dependent on reactive oxygen species and MAP-kinase activity, and the increased viable intracellular bacteria in NOD2(-/-) cells likely reflect a reduced ability to recognize and kill bacteria. Thus a significant barrier defect occurs with NOD2 deficiency in conjunction with metabolic stress that could contribute to inflammation.