Inhibitor of microtubule formation
· Inhibits initiation and outgrowth of neurites in vitro, through microtubule polymerization (Letourneau & Ressler).
· Inhibits tumor cell growth in a variety of cancer cell lines including cervical (HeLa), lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29), ovarian (OVG-1), and pancreatic (PC-Sh) carcinomas (Liebmann et al.).
· Induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation, inducing cell cycle arrest at prophase and G1 in various human cell cancer lines (Woods et al.).
· Initiates apoptosis of cancer cells through multiple mechanisms involving: p53-dependent and -independent pathways, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family members, cyclin-dependent kinases, p38 MAPK, PKA, and JNK/SAPK (Wang et al.; Reshkin et al.).
· Induces cyclin inhibitor p21 in MCF7 and PC3M human cancer cell lines by a mechanism dependent on the activation of RAF-1 (Blagosklonny et al.).
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