MAINTENANCE & SELF-RENEWAL
· Induces upregulation of the pluripotency network genes (Klf4, Klf2, Nanog, Oct4, Myc, Sox2) and epigenetic-associated proteins (Dnmt3a, Mbd3) in mouse ES cells, and inhibits retinoic acid-induced differentiation (Adamo et al.; Shi et al).
· Promotes differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells (Kanazawa et al.).
· Inhibits proliferation and promotes osteogenic differentiation, while inhibiting adipogenic differentiation, of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and rabbit bone marrow-derived MSCs (Wu et al.).
· Suppresses proliferation and induces astroglial differentiation in neural stem cells (NSCs) and in the immortalized NSC line C17.2 (C17.2-NSC; Zang et al. 2008, 2009).
· Decreased proliferation and Nanog expression in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, with increased erythroid differentiation (Chae et al.)
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