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Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a member of the FGF family. Using β-Klotho as a cofactor, FGF-21 signals through FGF receptor 1c and 4 to activate PI3K and MAPK pathways (Mattila & Härkönen; Kharitonenkov et al.). FGF-21 expression is regulated by tissue-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Upon PPAR-α stimulation FGF-21 is produced in the liver, and activation of PPAR-γ leads to FGF-21 production in adipose tissue. FGF-21 promotes insulin-independent glucose uptake and lipid accumulation in primary human adipocytes and in mouse 3T3-L1 cells. In pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells it inhibits glucose-mediated glucagon release and stimulates insulin production. FGF-21 does not induce proliferation in immortalized cell lines, unlike other FGFs (Kharitonenkov & Shanafelt). FGF-21 regulates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue, and metabolic processes in cells of pancreatic origin (Kharitonenkov et al.).
Cytokines, Growth Factors
Fibroblast growth factor 21
Endoderm, PSC-Derived, Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells, Mammary Cells, Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells, Neural Cells, PSC-Derived, Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Prostate Cells
(A) The biological activity of Mouse Recombinant FGF-21 was tested by its ability to promote the proliferation of NIH-3T3 cells in the presence of 1.25 μg/mL mouse Klotho and 10 μg/mL heparin. Cell proliferation was measured using a fluorometric assay method. The EC50 is defined as the effective concentration of the growth factor at which cell proliferation is at 50% of maximum. The EC50 in the above example is less than 0.5 μg/mL. (B) 2 μg of Mouse Recombinant FGF-21 was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (+) and non-reducing (-) conditions and visualized by Coomassie Blue staining.
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