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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a member of the CSF family of glycoproteins that regulate hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. It is a key cytokine involved in the production of neutrophils and the stimulation of granulocyte colony formation from hematopoietic progenitor cells (Metcalf & Nicola). G-CSF causes a range of effects including a transient reduction of SDF-1 expression (Petit et al.), the activation of metalloproteases that cleave VCAM-1 (Levesque et al.), and the release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system (Katayama et al.), leading to the release or mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow into the periphery. The G-CSF receptor is expressed on a variety of hematopoietic cells, including myeloid-committed progenitor cells, neutrophils, granulocytes, and monocytes. In addition to hematopoietic cells, G-CSF is also expressed in cardiomyocytes, neuronal cells, mesothelial cells, and endothelial cells. Binding of G-CSF to its receptor leads to activation of the JAK/STAT, MAPK, PI3K, and AKT signal transduction pathways.
(A) The biological activity of Human Recombinant G-CSF was tested by its ability to promote the proliferation of mouse NFS-60 cells. Cell proliferation was measured using a fluorometric assay method. The EC50 is defined as the effective concentration of the growth factor at which cell proliferation is at 50% of maximum. The EC50 in the above example is 0.053 ng/mL.
(B) 1 µg of Human Recombinant G-CSF was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (+) and non-reducing (-) conditions and visualized by Coomassie Blue staining. Human Recombinant G-CSF has a predicted molecular mass of 18.8 kDa.
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Direct induction of haematoendothelial programs in human pluripotent stem cells by transcriptional regulators.
I. Elcheva et al.
Nature communications 2014 jul
Advancing pluripotent stem cell technologies for modelling haematopoietic stem cell development and blood therapies requires identifying key regulators of haematopoietic commitment from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Here, by screening the effect of 27 candidate factors, we reveal two groups of transcriptional regulators capable of inducing distinct haematopoietic programs from hPSCs: pan-myeloid (ETV2 and GATA2) and erythro-megakaryocytic (GATA2 and TAL1). In both cases, these transcription factors directly convert hPSCs to endothelium, which subsequently transform into blood cells with pan-myeloid or erythro-megakaryocytic potential. These data demonstrate that two distinct genetic programs regulate the haematopoietic development from hPSCs and that both of these programs specify hPSCs directly to haemogenic endothelial cells. In addition, this study provides a novel method for the efficient induction of blood and endothelial cells from hPSCs via the overexpression of modified mRNA for the selected transcription factors.
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