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Neural Organoids

Neural organoids, also known as cerebral organoids, are hPSC-derived three-dimensional in vitro culture systems that recapitulate the developmental processes and organization of the developing human brain. These ‘mini-brains’ provide a physiologically relevant in vitro 3D brain model for the study of neurological development and disease processes that are unique to the human nervous system. They have important applications in studying human brain development and neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia or brain defects caused by Zika virus infection.

We've created these resources to support your work with cerebral organoids, and to give you a glimpse into how cerebral organoids are being used by scientists in the field of neuroscience.

Key Neural Organoid Publications

Neural Spheroids

Forebrain-Specific Organoids

Pituitary-Specific Organoids

Hypothalamus-Specific Organoids

Wataya T et al. (2008) Minimization of exogenous signals in ES cell culture induces rostral hypothalamic differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(33): 11796–801.

Whole-Brain Organoids

Lancaster MA and JA Knoblich. (2014) Generation of cerebral organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc 9(10):2329-40.
Lancaster MA et al. (2014) Organogenesis in a dish: modeling development and disease using organoid technologies. Science 345(6194): 1247125.
Lancaster MA et al. (2013) Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly. Nature 501(1): 373–9.


Karzbrun E et al. (2018) Human brain organoids on a chip reveal the physics of folding. Nature Physics 14(5): 515-22.
Quadrato G et al. (2017) Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids. Nature 545(7652): 48-53.