Conditional Reprogramming (CR) Medium

Conditional reprogramming medium for epithelial cell expansion

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Conditional Reprogramming (CR) Medium

Conditional reprogramming medium for epithelial cell expansion

250 mL
Catalog #100-0352
160 USD


Conditional Reprogramming (CR) Medium is optimized to use with 3T3-J2 Irradiated Feeder Cells (Catalog #100-0353) to expand epithelial cells without genetic modification. Mature epithelial cells have been shown to restore tissue-specific progenitor phenotype that enables proliferation in the presence of CR Medium (Liu X et al. 2012; Liu X et al. 2017). This conditional proliferative capability is deactivated once the medium is removed from the cells (Liu X et al. 2012; Liu X et al. 2017). CR Medium is suitable to propagate primary epithelial cells from healthy or tumor tissues (airway, retina, prostate, breast, intestine, pancreas, liver biliary duct, etc.; Liu X et al. 2012; Liu X et al. 2017; Suprynowicz FA et al.). This product is free of antibiotics and intended for Research Use Only. CR Medium must be supplemented with cholera toxin prior to use.
Cell Type:
Epithelial Cells; Mammary Cells; Prostate Cells
Cell Culture; Differentiation; Expansion
Area of Interest:
Epithelial Cell Biology; Stem Cell Biology

Scientific Resources

Product Documentation

Data and Publications


Oncogene 2018

A system for detecting high impact-low frequency mutations in primary tumors and metastases

M. Anjanappa et al.


Tumor complexity and intratumor heterogeneity contribute to subclonal diversity. Despite advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics, detecting rare mutations in primary tumors and metastases contributing to subclonal diversity is a challenge for precision genomics. Here, in order to identify rare mutations, we adapted a recently described epithelial reprograming assay for short-term propagation of epithelial cells from primary and metastatic tumors. Using this approach, we expanded minor clones and obtained epithelial cell-specific DNA/RNA for quantitative NGS analysis. Comparative Ampliseq Comprehensive Cancer Panel sequence analyses were performed on DNA from unprocessed breast tumor and tumor cells propagated from the same tumor. We identified previously uncharacterized mutations present only in the cultured tumor cells, a subset of which has been reported in brain metastatic but not primary breast tumors. In addition, whole-genome sequencing identified mutations enriched in liver metastases of various cancers, including Notch pathway mutations/chromosomal inversions in 5/5 liver metastases, irrespective of cancer types. Mutations/rearrangements in FHIT, involved in purine metabolism, were detected in 4/5 liver metastases, and the same four liver metastases shared mutations in 32 genes, including mutations of different HLA-DR family members affecting OX40 signaling pathway, which could impact the immune response to metastatic cells. Pathway analyses of all mutated genes in liver metastases showed aberrant tumor necrosis factor and transforming growth factor signaling in metastatic cells. Epigenetic regulators including KMT2C/MLL3 and ARID1B, which are mutated in {\textgreater}50{\%} of hepatocellular carcinomas, were also mutated in liver metastases. Thus, irrespective of cancer types, organ-specific metastases may share common genomic aberrations. Since recent studies show independent evolution of primary tumors and metastases and in most cases mutation burden is higher in metastases than primary tumors, the method described here may allow early detection of subclonal somatic alterations associated with metastatic progression and potentially identify therapeutically actionable, metastasis-specific genomic aberrations.
Scientific Reports 2018

Patient-derived conditionally reprogrammed cells maintain intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity

B. R. Correa et al.


Preclinical in vitro models provide an essential tool to study cancer cell biology as well as aid in translational research, including drug target identification and drug discovery efforts. For any model to be clinically relevant, it needs to recapitulate the biology and cell heterogeneity of the primary tumor. We recently developed and described a conditional reprogramming (CR) cell technology that addresses many of these needs and avoids the deficiencies of most current cancer cell lines, which are usually clonal in origin. Here, we used the CR cell method to generate a collection of patient-derived cell cultures from non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Whole exome sequencing and copy number variations are used for the first time to address the capability of CR cells to keep their tumor-derived heterogeneity. Our results indicated that these primary cultures largely maintained the molecular characteristics of the original tumors. Using a mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH) score, we showed that CR cells are able to keep and maintain most of the intra-tumoral heterogeneity, suggesting oligoclonality of these cultures. CR cultures therefore represent a pre-clinical lung cancer model for future basic and translational studies.
Science 2018

Patient-derived organoids model treatment response of metastatic gastrointestinal cancers

G. Vlachogiannis et al.


Patient-derived organoids (PDOs) have recently emerged as robust preclinical models; however, their potential to predict clinical outcomes in patients has remained unclear. We report on a living biobank of PDOs from metastatic, heavily pretreated colorectal and gastroesophageal cancer patients recruited in phase 1/2 clinical trials. Phenotypic and genotypic profiling of PDOs showed a high degree of similarity to the original patient tumors. Molecular profiling of tumor organoids was matched to drug-screening results, suggesting that PDOs could complement existing approaches in defining cancer vulnerabilities and improving treatment responses.We compared responses to anticancer agents ex vivo in organoids and PDO-based orthotopic mouse tumor xenograft models with the responses of the patients in clinical trials. Our data suggest that PDOs can recapitulate patient responses in the clinic and could be implemented in personalized medicine programs.
Cell Reports 2017

Primary Patient-Derived Cancer Cells and Their Potential for Personalized Cancer Patient Care

D. P. Kodack et al.


Personalized cancer therapy is based on a patient's tumor lineage, histopathology, expression analyses, and/or tumor DNA or RNA analysis. Here, we aim to develop an in vitro functional assay of a patient's living cancer cells that could complement these approaches. We present methods for developing cell cultures from tumor biopsies and identify the types of samples and culture conditions associated with higher efficiency of model establishment. Toward the application of patient-derived cell cultures for personalized care, we established an immunofluorescence-based functional assay that quantifies cancer cell responses to targeted therapy in mixed cell cultures. Assaying patient-derived lung cancer cultures with this method showed promise in modeling patient response for diagnostic use. This platform should allow for the development of co-clinical trial studies to prospectively test the value of drug profiling on tumor-biopsy-derived cultures to direct patient care. Kodack et al. report on the development of cancer models from tumor biopsies and technologies toward a functional approach for personalized medicine. They describe the ability to reliably test drug response in patient-derived samples of mixed cell populations. In doing so, they show that patient biopsy cultures may predict patient clinical responses.
Nature Protocols 2017

Conditional reprogramming and long-term expansion of normal and tumor cells from human biospecimens

X. Liu et al.


Historically, it has been difficult to propagate cells in vitro that are derived directly from human tumors or healthy tissue. However, in vitro preclinical models are essential tools for both the study of basic cancer biology and the promotion of translational research, including drug discovery and drug target identification. This protocol describes conditional reprogramming (CR), which involves coculture of irradiated mouse fibroblast feeder cells with normal and tumor human epithelial cells in the presence of a Rho kinase inhibitor (Y-27632). CR cells can be used for various applications, including regenerative medicine, drug sensitivity testing, gene expression profiling and xenograft studies. The method requires a pathologist to differentiate healthy tissue from tumor tissue, and basic tissue culture skills. The protocol can be used with cells derived from both fresh and cryopreserved tissue samples. As approximately 1 million cells can be generated in 7 d, the technique is directly applicable to diagnostic and predictive medicine. Moreover, the epithelial cells can be propagated indefinitely in vitro, yet retain the capacity to become fully differentiated when placed into conditions that mimic their natural environment.