RHO/ROCK Pathway Inhibitor; Inhibits ROCK1 and ROCK2

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Catalog # 72302
RHO/ROCK Pathway Inhibitor; Inhibits ROCK1 and ROCK2
From: 135 CAD


Y-27632 is a cell-permeable, highly potent and selective inhibitor of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK). Y-27632 inhibits both ROCK1 (Ki = 220 nM) and ROCK2 (Ki = 300 nM) by competing with ATP for binding to the catalytic site. (Davies et al., Ishizaki et al.)

· Direct lineage reprogramming of fibroblasts to mature neurons, in combination with CHIR99021, RepSox, Forskolin, SP600125, Gö6983 and Valproic Acid (Hu et al.).

· Enhances survival of human embryonic stem (ES) cells when they are dissociated to single cells by preventing dissociation-induced apoptosis (anoikis), thus increasing their cloning efficiency (Watanabe et al.).
· Improves embryoid body formation using forced-aggregation protocols (Ungrin et al.).
· Increases the survival of cryopreserved single human ES cells after thawing (Li et al.).
· Blocks apoptosis of mouse ES-derived neural precursors after dissociation and transplantation (Koyanagi et al.).

· Improves survival of human ES cell monolayers at the initiation of differentiation protocols (Rezania et al.)
CAS Number:
Alternative Names:
Not applicable
Chemical Formula:
C₁₄H₂₁N₃O · 2HCl
Molecular Weight:
320.3 g/mol
≥ 98%

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This product is designed for use in the following research area(s) as part of the highlighted workflow stage(s). Explore these workflows to learn more about the other products we offer to support each research area.

Data and Publications


PloS one 2015 December

Reprogramming of HUVECs into induced pluripotent stem cells (HiPSCs), generation and characterization of HiPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes.

Haile Y et al.


Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic and progressive structural or functional loss of neurons. Limitations related to the animal models of these human diseases have impeded the development of effective drugs. This emphasizes the need to establish disease models using human-derived cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has provided novel opportunities in disease modeling, drug development, screening, and the potential for patient-matched" cellular therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study with the objective of establishing reliable tools to study neurodegenerative diseases we reprogrammed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into iPSCs (HiPSCs). Using a novel and direct approach HiPSCs were differentiated into cells of central nervous system (CNS) lineage including neuronal astrocyte and glial cells with high efficiency. HiPSCs expressed embryonic genes such as nanog sox2 and Oct-3/4 and formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of the 3 germ layers. Expression of endothelial-specific genes was not detected in HiPSCs at RNA or protein levels. HiPSC-derived neurons possess similar morphology but significantly longer neurites compared to primary human fetal neurons. These stem cell-derived neurons are susceptible to inflammatory cell-mediated neuronal injury. HiPSC-derived neurons express various amino acids that are important for normal function in the CNS. They have functional receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters such as glutamate and acetylcholine. HiPSC-derived astrocytes respond to ATP and acetylcholine by elevating cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. In summary this study presents a novel technique to generate differentiated and functional HiPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes. These cells are appropriate tools for studying the development of the nervous system the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases and the development of potential drugs for their treatments."
Cell stem cell 2015 August

Direct Conversion of Normal and Alzheimer's Disease Human Fibroblasts into Neuronal Cells by Small Molecules.

Hu W et al.


Neuronal conversion from human fibroblasts can be induced by lineage-specific transcription factors; however, the introduction of ectopic genes limits the therapeutic applications of such induced neurons (iNs). Here, we report that human fibroblasts can be directly converted into neuronal cells by a chemical cocktail of seven small molecules, bypassing a neural progenitor stage. These human chemical-induced neuronal cells (hciNs) resembled hiPSC-derived neurons and human iNs (hiNs) with respect to morphology, gene expression profiles, and electrophysiological properties. This approach was further applied to generate hciNs from familial Alzheimer's disease patients. Taken together, our transgene-free and chemical-only approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts into neurons provides an alternative strategy for modeling neurological diseases and for regenerative medicine.
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2014 November

Phasic modulation of Wnt signaling enhances cardiac differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells by recapitulating developmental ontogeny.

Mehta A et al.


Cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer immense value in studying cardiovascular regenerative medicine. However, intrinsic biases and differential responsiveness of hPSCs towards cardiac differentiation pose significant technical and logistic hurdles that hamper human cardiomyocyte studies. Tandem modulation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways may play a crucial role in cardiac development that can efficiently generate cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells. Our Wnt signaling expression profiles revealed that phasic modulation of canonical/non-canonical axis enabled orderly recapitulation of cardiac developmental ontogeny. Moreover, evaluation of 8 hPSC lines showed marked commitment towards cardiac-mesoderm during the early phase of differentiation, with elevated levels of canonical Wnts (Wnt3 and 3a) and Mesp1. Whereas continued activation of canonical Wnts was counterproductive, its discrete inhibition during the later phase of cardiac differentiation was accompanied by significant up-regulation of non-canonical Wnt expression (Wnt5a and 11) and enhanced Nkx2.5(+) (up to 98%) populations. These Nkx2.5(+) populations transited to contracting cardiac troponin T-positive CMs with up to 80% efficiency. Our results suggest that timely modulation of Wnt pathways would transcend intrinsic differentiation biases of hPSCs to consistently generate functional CMs that could facilitate their scalable production for meaningful clinical translation towards personalized regenerative medicine.
BMC biology 2014 December

Suppression of histone deacetylation promotes the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells towards neural progenitor cells.

Yang J et al.


BACKGROUND Emerging studies of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) raise new prospects for neurodegenerative disease modeling and cell replacement therapies. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the commitment of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is important for the application of hPSCs in neurodegenerative disease therapies. It has been reported that epigenetic modifications of histones play important roles in neural differentiation, but the exact mechanisms in regulating hPSC differentiation towards NPCs are not fully elucidated. RESULTS We demonstrated that suppression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) promoted the differentiation of hPSCs towards NPCs. Application of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) increased the expression of neuroectodermal markers and enhanced the neuroectodermal specification once neural differentiation was initiated, thereby leading to more NPC generation. Similarly, the transcriptome analysis showed that HDACi increased the expression levels of ectodermal markers and triggered the NPC differentiation related pathways, while decreasing the expression levels of endodermal and mesodermal markers. Furthermore, we documented that HDAC3 but not HDAC1 or HDAC2 was the critical regulator participating in NPC differentiation, and knockdown of HDAC3's cofactor SMRT exhibited a similar effect as HDAC3 on NPC generation. CONCLUSIONS Our study reveals that HDACs, especially HDAC3, negatively regulate the differentiation of hPSCs towards NPCs at an earlier stage of neural differentiation. Moreover, HDAC3 might function by forming a repressor complex with its cofactor SMRT during this process. Thus, our findings uncover an important epigenetic mechanism of HDAC3 in the differentiation of hPSCs towards NPCs.
ACS chemical biology 2013 May

A ROCK inhibitor permits survival of dissociated human embryonic stem cells.

Al-Ali H et al.


Poor survival of human embryonic stem (hES) cells after cell dissociation is an obstacle to research, hindering manipulations such as subcloning. Here we show that application of a selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632, to hES cells markedly diminishes dissociation-induced apoptosis, increases cloning efficiency (from approximately 1% to approximately 27%) and facilitates subcloning after gene transfer. Furthermore, dissociated hES cells treated with Y-27632 are protected from apoptosis even in serum-free suspension (SFEB) culture and form floating aggregates. We demonstrate that the protective ability of Y-27632 enables SFEB-cultured hES cells to survive and differentiate into Bf1(+) cortical and basal telencephalic progenitors, as do SFEB-cultured mouse ES cells.