Rodriguez-Fonseca C et al. (MAY 2000)
RNA (New York, N.Y.) 6 5 744--54
Puromycin-rRNA interaction sites at the peptidyl transferase center.
The binding site of puromycin was probed chemically in the peptidyl-transferase center of ribosomes from Escherichia coli and of puromycin-hypersensitive ribosomes from the archaeon Haloferax gibbonsii. Several nucleotides of the 23S rRNAs showed altered chemical reactivities in the presence of puromycin. They include A2439, G2505, and G2553 for E. coli, and G2058, A2503, G2505, and G2553 for Hf. gibbonsii (using the E. coli numbering system). Reproducible enhanced reactivities were also observed at A508 and A1579 within domains I and III, respectively, of E. coli 23S rRNA. In further experiments, puromycin was shown to produce a major reduction in the UV-induced crosslinking of deacylated-(2N3A76)tRNA to U2506 within the P' site of E. coli ribosomes. Moreover, it strongly stimulated the putative UV-induced crosslink between a streptogramin B drug and m2A2503/psi2504 at an adjacent site in E. coli 23S rRNA. These data strongly support the concept that puromycin, along with other peptidyl-transferase antibiotics, in particular the streptogramin B drugs, bind to an RNA structural motif that contains several conserved and accessible base moieties of the peptidyl transferase loop region. This streptogramin motif is also likely to provide binding sites for the 3' termini of the acceptor and donor tRNAs. In contrast, the effects at A508 and A1579, which are located at the exit site of the peptide channel, are likely to be caused by a structural effect transmitted along the peptide channel.
Shimakura Y et al. (JAN 2000)
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 18 3 183--9
Murine stromal cell line HESS-5 maintains reconstituting ability of Ex vivo-generated hematopoietic stem cells from human bone marrow and cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood.
Human bone marrow (BM) or mobilized peripheral blood (mPB) CD34(+) cells have been shown to loose their stem cell quality during culture period more easily than those from cord blood (CB). We previously reported that human umbilical CB stem cells could effectively be expanded in the presence of human recombinant cytokines and a newly established murine bone marrow stromal cell line HESS-5. In this study we assessed the efficacy of this xenogeneic coculture system using human BM and mPB CD34(+) cells as materials. We measured the generation of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells and colony-forming units, and assessed severe-combined immunodeficient mouse-repopulating cell (SRC) activity using cells five days after serum-free cytokine-containing culture in the presence or the absence of a direct contact with HESS-5 cells. As compared with the stroma-free culture, the xenogeneic coculture was significantly superior on expansion of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells and colony-forming cells and on maintenance of SRC activity. The PKH26 study demonstrated that cell division was promoted faster in cells cocultured with HESS-5 cells than in cells cultured without HESS-5 cells. These results indicate that HESS-5 supports rapid generation of primitive progenitor cells (PPC) and maintains reconstituting ability of newly generated stem cells during ex vivo culture irrespective of the source of samples. This xenogeneic coculture system will be useful for ex vivo manipulation such as gene transduction to promote cell division and the generation of PPC and to prevent loss of stem cell quality.
Starter Kit for MethoCult™ H4034 Optimum
MethoCult™ H4034 Optimum
Matsumoto K et al. (JAN 2000)
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 18 3 196--203
In vitro proliferation potential of AC133 positive cells in peripheral blood.
AC133 antigen is a novel marker for human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we examined the expression and proliferation potential of AC133(+) cells obtained from steady-state peripheral blood (PB). The proportion of AC133(+) cells in the CD34(+) subpopulation of steady-state PB was significantly lower than that of cord blood (CB), although that of cytokine-mobilized PB was higher than that of CB. The proliferation potential of AC133(+)CD34(+) and AC133(-)CD34(+) cells was examined by colony-forming analysis and analysis of long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC). Although the total number of colony-forming cells was essentially the same in the AC133(+)CD34(+) fraction as in the AC133(-)CD34(+) fraction, the proportion of LTC-IC was much higher in the AC133(+)CD34(+) fraction. Virtually no LTC-IC were detected in the AC133(-)CD34(+) fraction. In addition, the features of the colonies grown from these two fractions were quite different. Approximately 70% of the colonies derived from the AC133(+)CD34(+) fraction were granulocyte-macrophage colonies, whereas more than 90% of the colonies derived from the AC133(-)CD34(+) fraction were erythroid colonies. Furthermore, an ex vivo expansion study observed expansion of colony-forming cells only in the AC133(+)CD34(+) population, and not in the AC133(-)CD34(+) population. These findings suggest that to isolate primitive hematopoietic cells from steady-state PB, selection by AC133 expression is better than selection by CD34 expression.
MethoCult™ H4034 Optimum
Boissier S et al. (JUN 2000)
Cancer research 60 11 2949--54
Bisphosphonates inhibit breast and prostate carcinoma cell invasion, an early event in the formation of bone metastases.
The molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells metastasize to bone are likely to involve invasion, cell adhesion to bone, and the release of soluble mediators from tumor cells that stimulate osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are powerful inhibitors of the osteoclast activity and are, therefore, used in the treatment of patients with osteolytic metastases. However, an added beneficial effect of BPs may be direct antitumor activity. We previously reported that BPs inhibit breast and prostate carcinoma cell adhesion to bone (Boissier et al., Cancer Res., 57: 3890-3894, 1997). Here, we provided evidence that BP pretreatment of breast and prostate carcinoma cells inhibited tumor cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The order of potency for four BPs in inhibiting tumor cell invasion was: zoledronate textgreater ibandronate textgreater NE-10244 (active pyridinium analogue of risedronate) textgreater clodronate. In addition, NE-58051 (the inactive pyridylpropylidene analogue of risedronate) had no inhibitory effect, whereas NE-10790 (a phosphonocarboxylate analogue of risedronate in which one of the phosphonate groups is substituted by a carboxyl group) inhibited tumor cell invasion to an extent similar to that observed with NE-10244, indicating that the inhibitory activity of BPs on tumor cells involved the R2 chain of the molecule. BPs did not induce apoptosis in tumor cells, nor did they inhibit tumor cell migration at concentrations that did inhibit tumor cell invasion. However, although BPs did not interfere with the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by tumor cells, they inhibited their proteolytic activity. The inhibitory effect of BPs on MMP activity was completely reversed in the presence of an excess of zinc. In addition, NE-10790 did not inhibit MMP activity, suggesting that phosphonate groups of BPs are responsible for the chelation of zinc and the subsequent inhibition of MMP activity. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a direct cellular effect of BPs in preventing tumor cell invasion and an inhibitory effect of BPs on the proteolytic activity of MMPs through zinc chelation. These results suggest, therefore, that BPs may be useful agents for the prophylactic treatment of patients with cancers that are known to preferentially metastasize to bone.
Wang TH et al. ( 2000)
Cancer 88 11 2619--2628
Paclitaxel-induced cell death: where the cell cycle and apoptosis come together.
BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence indicates that paclitaxel kills cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. Paclitaxel binds microtubules and causes kinetic suppression (stabilization) of microtubule dynamics. The consequent arrest of the cell cycle at mitotic phase has been considered to be the cause of paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity. However, the biochemical events, downstream from paclitaxel's binding to microtubules, that lead to apoptosis are not well understood. METHODS: The authors examined recent scientific literature about the mechanisms by which paclitaxel exerts cytotoxicity. RESULTS: In addition to an arrest of the cell cycle at the mitotic phase in paclitaxel-treated cells, recent discoveries of activation of signaling molecules by paclitaxel and paclitaxel-induced transcriptional activation of various genes indicate that paclitaxel initiates apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. The checkpoint of mitotic spindle assembly, aberrant activation of cyclin-dependent kinases, and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) are shown to be involved in paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Consistent with observations that microtubules of different status (e.g., cytoskeletal microtubules vs. mitotic spindles) have different sensitivity to paclitaxel, the concentration of paclitaxel appears to be the major determinant of its apoptogenic mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in research of the cell cycle and apoptosis have extended our understanding of the mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced cell death. Further elucidation of resistance and enhancement of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis should expedite the development of better paclitaxel-based regimens for cancer therapy.
Satoh T et al. ( 2000)
Neuroscience letters 288 2 163--166
Neuroprotection by MAPK/ERK kinase inhibition with U0126 against oxidative stress in a mouse neuronal cell line and rat primary cultured cortical neurons.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. We investigated the role of these mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in oxidative neuronal injury by using a mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) and rat primary cortical cultures. Here, we show that a novel MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) specific inhibitor U0126 profoundly protected HT22 cells against oxidative stress induced by glutamate, which was accompanied by an inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK1/2. U0126 also protected rat primary cultured cortical neurons against glutamate or hypoxia. However, U0126 was not protective against death caused by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), A23187, or staurosporine. These results indicate that MEK plays a central role in the neuronal death caused by oxidative stress.
Hara M et al. (JUL 2000)
Journal of neurosurgery 93 1 Suppl 94--101
Protein kinase inhibition by fasudil hydrochloride promotes neurological recovery after spinal cord injury in rats.
OBJECT In Japan fasudil hydrochloride (HA1077), a protein kinase inhibitor, is widely administered to prevent vasospasm in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effects of fasudil on experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) were investigated and compared with those obtained using methylprednisolone. METHODS Spinal cord contusion was induced in rats by applying an aneurysm clip extradurally to the spinal cord at T-3 for 1 minute. After injury three groups of rats were treated with intravenously administered saline (control), intraperitoneally administered fasudil (10 mg/kg), or intravenously administered methylprednisolone (four 30 mg/kg injections). Neurological recovery was evaluated periodically over 1 month by using a modified combined behavioral scale and histopathological examination. Leukocyte infiltration near the injury site was evaluated by measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity at 24 hours. Spinal cord blood flow was measured at intervals up to 3 hours after injury by using laser Doppler flowmetry. In rats in the fasudil-treated group significant improvement in modified combined behavioral score was demonstrated at each time point, whereas in the methylprednisolone-treated rats no beneficial effects were shown. In the fasudil-treated group, reduction of traumatic spinal cord damage was evident histologically in the caudal portion of the injured areas, and tissue MPO activity in tissue samples was reduced. Spinal cord blood flow was not significantly different between fasudil-treated and control group rats. CONCLUSIONS Fasudil hydrochloride showed promise of effectiveness in promoting neurological recovery after traumatic SCI. Possible mechanisms of this effect include protein kinase inhibition and decreased infiltration by neutrophils.
Ross DD et al. (JUL 2000)
Blood 96 1 365--8
Expression of breast cancer resistance protein in blast cells from patients with acute leukemia.
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a novel member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette superfamily of transport proteins. Transfection and enforced expression of BCRP in drug-sensitive cells confer resistance to mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and topotecan. We studied blast cells from 21 acute leukemia patients (20 acute myeloid leukemia, 1 acute lymphocytic leukemia) for the expression of BCRP mRNA using a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. BCRP mRNA expression varied more than 1000-fold among the samples tested, with low or barely detectable expression in half of the samples. Seven samples (33%) had relatively high expression of BCRP mRNA. High expression of BCRP did not correlate strongly with high expression of P-glycoprotein, suggesting that BCRP may cause resistance to certain antileukemic drugs in P-glycoprotein-negative cases. High expression of BCRP mRNA is sufficiently frequent in AML to warrant more extensive investigations to determine the relation of disease subtype and treatment outcome to BCRP expression and function.
Spivak JL (MAY 2000)
Lancet 355 9216 1707--12
The blood in systemic disorders.
* The high rate of proliferation required of the bone marrow renders it highly susceptible to the influence of external factors. * Anaemia is the most common haematological abnormality seen in systemic disorders. * In the anaemia of chronic disease, erythropoietin production is reduced and proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells is also impaired; this anaemia can generally be alleviated by correction of the underlying disease process. * The status of the endocrine system must always be considered in evaluation of a normocytic, normochromic anaemia. * Anaemia in infection can be due to host or parasite factors or to the treatment administered. * Anaemia due to malignant disease responds to erythropoietin therapy in many cases; failure to respond is a poor prognostic sign.
Erythropoietin (EPO) ELISA Kit
Polakis P (AUG 2000)
Genes & development 14 15 1837--51
Sun SY et al. (SEP 2000)
Molecular pharmacology 58 3 508--14
Dual mechanisms of action of the retinoid CD437: nuclear retinoic acid receptor-mediated suppression of squamous differentiation and receptor-independent induction of apoptosis in UMSCC22B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
The synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437), which can bind to and activate the nuclear retinoic acid receptors beta and gamma (RARbeta/gamma), is a potent inducer of apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. However, this effect was reported to be independent of RARs. In this study, we compared and contrasted the potencies and mechanisms of action of CD437 and several other receptor-selective retinoids in induction of apoptosis and modulation of squamous differentiation in UMSCC22B human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line. CD437 and the structurally related retinoid CD2325 exhibited almost equal potency in inducing apoptosis, whereas several other retinoids failed to induce apoptosis. The RAR-specific pan antagonist AGN193109 failed to suppress CD437-induced apoptosis, indicating that the induction of apoptosis by CD437 was RAR-independent. c-Fos expression was induced by CD437 and CD2325 that induced apoptosis in the cell line but not by other retinoids that failed to induce apoptosis, suggesting a role for c-Fos in CD437-induced apoptosis. At low concentration (0.01 microM), CD437 shared with several other receptor-selective retinoids the ability to suppress the mRNA levels of the squamous differentiation markers Spr1, involucrin, and cytokeratin 1. This effect of CD437 could be blocked by AGN193109. We conclude that CD437 can exert its effects in UMSCC22B human human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by at least two mechanisms: RAR-mediated suppression of squamous differentiation and RAR-independent induction of apoptosis.