LFA-1 integrin antibodies inhibit leukocyte α4β1-mediated adhesion by intracellular signaling.
Binding of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) to the β2-integrin LFA-1 (leukocyte function associated antigen-1) is known to induce crosstalk to the α4β1 integrin. Using different LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies we have been able to study the requirement and mechanism of action for the crosstalk in considerable detail. LFA-1 activating antibodies and those inhibitory antibodies that signal to α4β1 induce phosphorylation of Thr-758 on the β2-chain, which is followed by binding of 14-3-3 proteins and signaling through the G protein exchange factor Tiam1. This results in dephosphorylation of Thr-788/789 on the β1-chain of α4β1 and loss of binding to its ligand VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). The results show that with LFA-1 antibodies, we can either 1) activate LFA-1 and inhibit α4β1, 2) inhibit both LFA-1 and α4β1, 3) inhibit LFA-1 but not α4β1 or 4) not affect LFA-1 or α4β1 These findings are important for the understanding of integrin regulation and for the interpretation of the effect of integrin antibodies and their use in clinical applications.