Meijer L et al. (DEC 2003)
Chemistry & biology 10 12 1255--66
GSK-3-selective inhibitors derived from Tyrian purple indirubins.
Gastropod mollusks have been used for over 2500 years to produce the Tyrian purple" dye made famous by the Phoenicians. This dye is constituted of mixed bromine-substituted indigo and indirubin isomers. Among these�
Lian X et al. (JUL 2012)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 27 E1848--57
Robust cardiomyocyte differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells via temporal modulation of canonical Wnt signaling.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer the potential to generate large numbers of functional cardiomyocytes from clonal and patient-specific cell sources. Here we show that temporal modulation of Wnt signaling is both essential and sufficient for efficient cardiac induction in hPSCs under defined, growth factor-free conditions. shRNA knockdown of β-catenin during the initial stage of hPSC differentiation fully blocked cardiomyocyte specification, whereas glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition at this point enhanced cardiomyocyte generation. Furthermore, sequential treatment of hPSCs with glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors followed by inducible expression of β-catenin shRNA or chemical inhibitors of Wnt signaling produced a high yield of virtually (up to 98%) pure functional human cardiomyocytes from multiple hPSC lines. The robust ability to generate functional cardiomyocytes under defined, growth factor-free conditions solely by genetic or chemically mediated manipulation of a single developmental pathway should facilitate scalable production of cardiac cells suitable for research and regenerative applications.