Joulia R et al. (JAN 2015)
Nature communications 6 6174
Mast cells form antibody-dependent degranulatory synapse for dedicated secretion and defence.
Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that play a key role in inflammation and allergy. Here we show that interaction of mast cells with antibody-targeted cells induces the polarized exocytosis of their granules resulting in a sustained exposure of effector enzymes, such as tryptase and chymase, at the cell-cell contact site. This previously unidentified mast cell effector mechanism, which we name the antibody-dependent degranulatory synapse (ADDS), is triggered by both IgE- and IgG-targeted cells. ADDSs take place within an area of cortical actin cytoskeleton clearance in the absence of microtubule organizing centre and Golgi apparatus repositioning towards the stimulating cell. Remarkably, IgG-mediated degranulatory synapses also occur upon contact with opsonized Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites resulting in tryptase-dependent parasite death. Our results broaden current views of mast cell degranulation by revealing that human mast cells form degranulatory synapses with antibody-targeted cells and pathogens for dedicated secretion and defence.
EasySep™ Human CD34 Positive Selection Kit
Anti-Human CD32 Antibody, Clone IV.3
Freeman SA et al. (JAN 2018)
Cell 172 2-Jan 305--317.e10
Transmembrane Pickets Connect Cyto- and Pericellular Skeletons Forming Barriers to Receptor Engagement.
Phagocytic receptors must diffuse laterally to become activated upon clustering by multivalent targets. Receptor diffusion, however, can be obstructed by transmembrane proteins (pickets") that are immobilized by interacting with the cortical cytoskeleton. The molecular identity of these pickets and their role in phagocytosis have not been defined. We used single-molecule tracking to study the interaction between Fcγ receptors and CD44 an abundant transmembrane protein capable of indirect association with F-actin hence likely to serve as a picket. CD44 tethers reversibly to formin-induced actin filaments curtailing receptor diffusion. Such linear filaments predominate in the trailing end of polarized macrophages where receptor mobility was minimal. Conversely receptors were most mobile at the leading edge where Arp2/3-driven actin branching predominates. CD44 binds hyaluronan anchoring a pericellular coat that also limits receptor displacement and obstructs access to phagocytic targets. Force must be applied to traverse the pericellular barrier enabling receptors to engage their targets.