Verma R et al. (AUG 2014)
The Journal of experimental medicine 211 9 1715--22
RHEX, a novel regulator of human erythroid progenitor cell expansion and erythroblast development.
Ligation of erythropoietin (EPO) receptor (EPOR) JAK2 kinase complexes propagates signals within erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) that are essential for red blood cell production. To reveal hypothesized novel EPOR/JAK2 targets, a phosphotyrosine (PY) phosphoproteomics approach was applied. Beyond known signal transduction factors, 32 new targets of EPO-modulated tyrosine phosphorylation were defined. Molecular adaptors comprised one major set including growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2)-associated binding proteins 1-3 (GAB1-3), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), docking protein 1 (DOK1), Src homology 2 domain containing transforming protein 1 (SHC1), and sprouty homologue 1 (SPRY1) as validating targets, and SPRY2, SH2 domain containing 2A (SH2D2A), and signal transducing adaptor molecule 2 (STAM2) as novel candidate adaptors together with an ORF factor designated as regulator of human erythroid cell expansion (RHEX). RHEX is well conserved in Homo sapiens and primates but absent from mouse, rat, and lower vertebrate genomes. Among tissues and lineages, RHEX was elevated in EPCs, occurred as a plasma membrane protein, was rapidly PY-phosphorylated textgreater20-fold upon EPO exposure, and coimmunoprecipitated with the EPOR. In UT7epo cells, knockdown of RHEX inhibited EPO-dependent growth. This was associated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1,2 (ERK1,2) modulation, and RHEX coupling to GRB2. In primary human EPCs, shRNA knockdown studies confirmed RHEX regulation of erythroid progenitor expansion and further revealed roles in promoting the formation of hemoglobinizing erythroblasts. RHEX therefore comprises a new EPO/EPOR target and regulator of human erythroid cell expansion that additionally acts to support late-stage erythroblast development.
MethoCult™ H4434 Classic
Sosef MN et al. (JAN 2005)
Annals of surgery 241 1 125--33
Cryopreservation of isolated primary rat hepatocytes: enhanced survival and long-term hepatospecific function.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the long-term effect of cryopreservation on hepatocyte function, as well as attempt to improve cell viability and function through the utilization of the hypothermic preservation solution, HypoThermosol (HTS), as the carrier solution. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Advances in the field of bioartificial liver support have led to an increasing demand for successful, efficient means of cryopreservation of hepatocytes. METHODS Fresh rat hepatocytes were cryopreserved in suspension in culture media (Media-cryo group) or HTS (HTS-cryo group), both supplemented with 10% DMSO. Following storage up to 2 months in liquid nitrogen, cells were thawed and maintained in a double collagen gel culture for 14 days. Hepatocyte yield and viability were assessed up to 14 days postthaw. Serial measurements of albumin secretion, urea synthesis, deethylation of ethoxyresorufin (CYT P450 activity), and responsiveness to stimulation with interleukin-6 (IL-6) were performed. RESULTS Immediate postthaw viability was 60% in Media-cryo and 79% in HTS-cryo, in comparison with control (90%). Albumin secretion, urea synthesis and CYT P450 activity yielded 33%, 55%, and 59% in Media-cryo and 71%, 80%, and 88% in HTS-cryo, respectively, compared with control (100%). Assessment of cellular response to IL-6 following cryopreservation revealed a similar pattern of up-regulation in fibrinogen production and suppression of albumin secretion compared with nonfrozen controls. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that isolated rat hepatocytes cryopreserved using HTS showed high viability, long-term hepatospecific function, and response to cytokine challenge. These results may represent an important step forward to the utilization of cryopreserved isolated hepatocytes in bioartificial liver devices.