Chen Z et al. ( 2016)
Nature communications 7 11596
Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis.
Th2-eosinophil immune responses are well known for mediating host defence against helminths. Herein we describe a function of Th2-eosinophil responses in counteracting the development of arthritis. In two independent models of arthritis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to Th2 and eosinophil accumulation in the joints associated with robust inhibition of arthritis and protection from bone loss. Mechanistically, this protective effect is dependent on IL-4/IL-13-induced STAT6 pathway. Furthermore, we show that eosinophils play a central role in the modulation of arthritis probably through the increase of anti-inflammatory macrophages into arthritic joints. The presence of these pathways in human disease is confirmed by detection of GATA3-positive cells and eosinophils in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that eosinophils and helminth-induced activation of the Th2 pathway axis effectively mitigate the course of inflammatory arthritis.
C. R. Seehus et al. (DEC 2017)
Nature communications 8 1 1900
Alternative activation generates IL-10 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells.
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) share cytokine and transcription factor expression with CD4+ Th2 cells, but functional diversity of the ILC2 lineage has yet to be fully explored. Here, we show induction of a molecularly distinct subset of activated lung ILC2, termed ILC210. These cells produce IL-10 and downregulate some pro-inflammatory genes. Signals that generate ILC210 are distinct from those that induce IL-13 production, and gene expression data indicate that an alternative activation pathway leads to the generation of ILC210. In vivo, IL-2 enhances ILC210 generation and is associated with decreased eosinophil recruitment to the lung. Unlike most activated ILC2, the ILC210 population contracts after cessation of stimulation in vivo, with maintenance of a subset that can be recalled by restimulation, analogous to T-cell effector cell and memory cell generation. These data demonstrate the generation of a previously unappreciated IL-10 producing ILC2 effector cell population.
B. K. Tusi et al. (FEB 2018)
Nature 555 7694 54--60
Population snapshots predict early haematopoietic and erythroid hierarchies.
The formation of red blood cells begins with the differentiation of multipotent haematopoietic progenitors. Reconstructing the steps of this differentiation represents a general challenge in stem-cell biology. Here we used single-cell transcriptomics, fate assays and a theory that allows the prediction of cell fates from population snapshots to demonstrate that mouse haematopoietic progenitors differentiate through a continuous, hierarchical structure into seven blood lineages. We uncovered coupling between the erythroid and the basophil or mast cell fates, a global haematopoietic response to erythroid stress and novel growth factor receptors that regulate erythropoiesis. We defined a flow cytometry sorting strategy to purify early stages of erythroid differentiation, completely isolating classically defined burst-forming and colony-forming progenitors. We also found that the cell cycle is progressively remodelled during erythroid development and during a sharp transcriptional switch that ends the colony-forming progenitor stage and activates terminal differentiation. Our work showcases the utility of linking transcriptomic data to predictive fate models, and provides insights into lineage development in vivo.