Ludigs K et al. (FEB 2016)
Nature Communications 7 10554
NLRC5 shields T lymphocytes from NK-cell-mediated elimination under inflammatory conditions.
NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I (MHCI), which maintains high MHCI expression particularly in T cells. Recent evidence highlights an important NK-T-cell crosstalk, raising the question on whether NLRC5 specifically modulates this interaction. Here we show that NK cells from Nlrc5-deficient mice exhibit moderate alterations in inhibitory receptor expression and responsiveness. Interestingly, NLRC5 expression in T cells is required to protect them from NK-cell-mediated elimination upon inflammation. Using T-cell-specific Nlrc5-deficient mice, we show that NK cells surprisingly break tolerance even towards 'self' Nlrc5-deficient T cells under inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, during chronic LCMV infection, the total CD8(+) T-cell population is severely decreased in these mice, a phenotype reverted by NK-cell depletion. These findings strongly suggest that endogenous T cells with low MHCI expression become NK-cell targets, having thus important implications for T-cell responses in naturally or therapeutically induced inflammatory conditions.
EasySep™ Mouse NK Cell Isolation Kit
Vitenshtein A et al. (OCT 2016)
Cell host & microbe 20 4 527--534
NK Cell Recognition of Candida glabrata through Binding of NKp46 and NCR1 to Fungal Ligands Epa1, Epa6, and Epa7.
Natural killer (NK) cells form an important arm of the innate immune system and function to combat a wide range of invading pathogens, ranging from viruses to bacteria. However, the means by which NK cells accomplish recognition of pathogens with a limited repertoire of receptors remain largely unknown. In the current study, we describe the recognition of an emerging fungal pathogen, Candida glabrata, by the human NK cytotoxic receptor NKp46 and its mouse ortholog, NCR1. Using NCR1 knockout mice, we observed that this receptor-mediated recognition was crucial for controlling C. glabrata infection in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we delineated the fungal ligands to be the C. glabrata adhesins Epa1, Epa6, and Epa7 and demonstrated that clearance of systemic C. glabrata infections in vivo depends on their recognition by NCR1. As NKp46 and NCR1 have been previously shown to bind viral adhesion receptors, we speculate that NKp46/NCR1 may be a novel type of pattern recognition receptor.
EasySep™ Mouse NK Cell Isolation Kit
Jagtap S et al. (APR 2011)
British Journal of Pharmacology 162 8 1743--56
Cytosine arabinoside induces ectoderm and inhibits mesoderm expression in human embryonic stem cells during multilineage differentiation.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Teratogenic substances induce adverse effects during the development of the embryo. Multilineage differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) mimics the development of the embryo in vitro. Here, we propose a transcriptomic approach in hESCs for monitoring specific toxic effects of compounds as an alternative to traditional time-consuming and cost-intensive in vivo tests requiring large numbers of animals. This study was undertaken to explore the adverse effects of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) on randomly differentiated hESCs.backslashnbackslashnEXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human embryonic stem cells were used to investigate the effects of a developmental toxicant Ara-C. Sublethal concentrations of Ara-C were given for two time points, day 7 and day 14 during the differentiation. Gene expression was assessed with microarrays to determine the dysregulated transcripts in presence of Ara-C.backslashnbackslashnKEY RESULTS: Randomly differentiated hESCs were able to generate the multilineage markers. The low concentration of Ara-C (1 nM) induced the ectoderm and inhibited the mesoderm at day 14. The induction of ectodermal markers such as MAP2, TUBB III, PAX6, TH and NESTIN was observed with an inhibition of mesodermal markers such as HAND2, PITX2, GATA5, MYL4, TNNT2, COL1A1 and COL1A2. In addition, no induction of apoptosis was observed. Gene ontology revealed unique dysregulated biological process related to neuronal differentiation and mesoderm development. Pathway analysis showed the axon guidance pathway to be dysregulated.backslashnbackslashnCONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our results suggest that hESCs in combination with toxicogenomics offer a sensitive in vitro developmental toxicity model as an alternative to traditional animal experiments.