Martinez-Gonzalez I et al. (JUL 2016)
Immunity 45 1 198--208
Allergen-Experienced Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Acquire Memory-like Properties and Enhance Allergic Lung Inflammation.
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung are stimulated by inhaled allergens. ILC2s do not directly recognize allergens but they are stimulated by cytokines including interleukin (IL)-33 released by damaged epithelium. In response to allergens, lung ILC2s produce T helper 2 cell type cytokines inducing T cell-independent allergic lung inflammation. Here we examined the fate of lung ILC2s upon allergen challenges. ILC2s proliferated and secreted cytokines upon initial stimulation with allergen or IL-33, and this phase was followed by a contraction phase as cytokine production ceased. Some ILC2s persisted long after the resolution of the inflammation as allergen-experienced ILC2s and responded to unrelated allergens more potently than naive ILC2s, mediating severe allergic inflammation. The allergen-experienced ILC2s exhibited a gene expression profile similar to that of memory T cells. The memory-like properties of allergen-experienced ILC2s may explain why asthma patients are often sensitized to multiple allergens.
EasySep™ Mouse ILC2 Enrichment Kit
Tyagi RK et al. (FEB 2017)
Scientific reports 7 41083
Human IDO-competent, long-lived immunoregulatory dendritic cells induced by intracellular pathogen, and their fate in humanized mice.
Targeting of myeloid-dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN by numerous chronic infectious agents, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is shown to drive-differentiation of monocytes into dysfunctional mDCs. These mDCs exhibit alterations of their fine-tuned homeostatic function and contribute to dysregulated immune-responses. Here, we utilize P. gingivalis mutant strains to show that pathogen-differentiated mDCs from primary human-monocytes display anti-apoptotic profile, exhibited by elevated phosphorylated-Foxo1, phosphorylated-Akt1, and decreased Bim-expression. This results in an overall inhibition of DC-apoptosis. Direct stimulation of complex component CD40 on DCs leads to activation of Akt1, suggesting CD40 involvement in anti-apoptotic effects observed. Further, these DCs drove dampened CD8(+) T-cell and Th1/Th17 effector-responses while inducing CD25(+)Foxp3(+)CD127(-) Tregs. In vitro Treg induction was mediated by DC expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and was confirmed in IDO-KO mouse model. Pathogen-infected &CMFDA-labeled MoDCs long-lasting survival was confirmed in a huMoDC reconstituted humanized mice. In conclusion, our data implicate PDDCs as an important target for resolution of chronic infection.