Vogel I et al. ( 2015)
The European Journal of Immunology 45 6 1832--1841
CD28/CTLA-4/B7 costimulatory pathway blockade affects regulatory T-cell function in autoimmunity
Naïve T cells require B7/CD28 costimulation in order to be fully activated. Attempts to block this pathway have been effective in preventing unwanted immune reactions. As B7 blockade might also affect Treg cells and interfere with negative signaling through membrane CTLA-4 on effector T (Teff) cells, its immune-modulatory effects are potentially more complex. Here, we used the mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), EAE, to study the effect of B7 blockade. An effective therapy for MS patients has to interfere with ongoing inflammation, and therefore we injected CTLA-4Ig at day 7 and 9 after immunization, when myelin-reactive T cells have been primed and start migrating toward the CNS. Surprisingly, B7 blockade exacerbated disease signs and resulted in more severe CNS inflammation and demyelination, and was associated with an enhanced production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IFN-γ. Importantly, CTLA-4Ig treatment resulted in a transient reduction of Ki67 and CTLA-4 expression and function of peripheral Treg cells. Taken together, B7 blockade at a particular stage of the autoimmune response can result in the suppression of Treg cells, leading to a more severe disease.
EasySep™ Mouse Naïve CD4+ T Cell Isolation Kit
Y.-H. Chang et al. ( 2017)
Immunity 47 5 943--958.e9
Dichotomous Expression of TNF Superfamily Ligands on Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Post-priming Anti-viral CD4+ T Cell Immunity.
T cell antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions early during chronic viral infection are crucial for determining viral set point and disease outcome, but how and when different APC subtypes contribute to these outcomes is unclear. The TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) member GITR is important for CD4+ T cell accumulation and control of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that type I interferon (IFN-I) induced TNFSF ligands GITRL, 4-1BBL, OX40L, and CD70 predominantly on monocyte-derived APCs and CD80 and CD86 predominantly on classical dendritic cells (cDCs). Mice with hypofunctional GITRL in Lyz2+ cells had decreased LCMV-specific CD4+ T cell accumulation and increased viral load. GITR signals in CD4+ T cells occurred after priming to upregulate OX40, CD25, and chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Thus IFN-I (signal 3) induced a post-priming checkpoint (signal 4) for CD4+ T cell accumulation, revealing a division of labor between cDCs and monocyte-derived APCs in regulating T cell expansion.