Bjö et al. (FEB 2016)
Scientific Reports 6 22083
Staphylococcus aureus-derived factors induce IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-17A-expressing FOXP3(+)CD161(+) T-helper cells in a partly monocyte-dependent manner.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a human pathogen as well as a frequent colonizer of skin and mucosa. This bacterium potently activates conventional T-cells through superantigens and it is suggested to induce T-cell cytokine-production as well as to promote a regulatory phenotype in T-cells in order to avoid clearance. This study aimed to investigate how S. aureus impacts the production of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expression of CD161 and HELIOS by peripheral CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T-cells. Stimulation of PBMC with S. aureus 161:2-cell free supernatant (CFS) induced expression of IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-17A in FOXP3(+) cells. Further, CD161 and HELIOS separated the FOXP3(+) cells into four distinct populations regarding cytokine-expression. Monocyte-depletion decreased S. aureus 161:2-induced activation of FOXP3(+) cells while pre-stimulation of purified monocytes with S. aureus 161:2-CFS and subsequent co-culture with autologous monocyte-depleted PBMC was sufficient to mediate activation of FOXP3(+) cells. Together, these data show that S. aureus potently induces FOXP3(+) cells and promotes a diverse phenotype with expression of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines connected to increased CD161-expression. This could indicate potent regulation or a contribution of FOXP3(+) cells to inflammation and repression of immune-suppression upon encounter with S. aureus.
EasySep™ Human CD4+CD25+ T Cell Isolation Kit
EasySep™ Human CD14 Positive Selection Kit II
EasySep™ Human Naïve CD4+ T Cell Isolation Kit
S. Joas et al. (feb 2020)
Cell reports 30 7 2261--2274.e7
The inability of Nef to downmodulate the CD3-T cell receptor (TCR) complex distinguishes HIV-1 from other primate lentiviruses and may contribute to its high virulence. However, the role of this Nef function in virus-mediated immune activation and pathogenicity remains speculative. Here, we selectively disrupted this Nef activity in SIVmac239 and analyzed the consequences for the virological, immunological, and clinical outcome of infection in rhesus macaques. The inability to downmodulate CD3-TCR does not impair viral replication during acute infection but is associated with increased immune activation and antiviral gene expression. Subsequent early reversion in three of six animals suggests strong selective pressure for this Nef function and is associated with high viral loads and progression to simian AIDS. In the absence of reversions, however, viral replication and the clinical course of infection are attenuated. Thus, Nef-mediated downmodulation of CD3 dampens the inflammatory response to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and seems critical for efficient viral immune evasion.