LSm14A Plays a Critical Role in Antiviral Immune Responses by Regulating MITA Level in a Cell-Specific Manner.
Viral infection triggers induction of antiviral cytokines and effectors, which are critical mediators of innate antiviral immune response. It has been shown that the processing body-associated protein LSm14A is involved in the induction of antiviral cytokines in cell lines but in vivo evidence is lacking. By generating LSm14A-deficient mice, in this study, we show that LSm14A plays a critical and specific role in the induction of antiviral cytokines in dendritic cells (DCs) but not in macrophages and fibroblasts. Induction of antiviral cytokines triggered by the DNA viruses HSV-1 and murid herpesvirus 68 and the RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus but not Sendai virus was impaired in Lsm14a(-/-) DCs, which is correlated to the functions of the adaptor protein MITA/STING in the antiviral signaling pathways. LSm14A deficiency specifically downregulated MITA/STING level in DCs by impairing its nuclear mRNA precursor processing and subsequently impaired antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses. Our findings reveal a nuclear mRNA precursor processing and cell-specific regulatory mechanism of antiviral immune responses.
EasySep™ Mouse CD11c Positive Selection Kit
EasySep™ Mouse CD11c Positive Selection Kit II
Maldonado M et al. (MAY 2016)
Advanced Healthcare Materials 5 12 1408--1412
Enhanced Lineage-Specific Differentiation Efficiency of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Engineering Colony Dimensionality Using Electrospun Scaffolds
Electrospun scaffolds with varied stiffness promote distinct colony morphology of human induced pluripotent stem cells, which affects their subsequent differentiation. On soft scaffolds, induced pluripotent stem cells develop 3D colonies due to the pliability of the electrospun fibrous networks, leading to greater differentiation tendency to ectodermal lineage.
Xu MM et al. (AUG 2017)
Immunity 47 2 363--373.e5
Dendritic Cells but Not Macrophages Sense Tumor Mitochondrial DNA for Cross-priming through Signal Regulatory Protein α Signaling.
Inhibition of cytosolic DNA sensing represents a strategy that tumor cells use for immune evasion, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we have shown that CD47-signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) axis dictates the fate of ingested DNA in DCs for immune evasion. Although macrophages were more potent in uptaking tumor DNA, increase of DNA sensing by blocking the interaction of SIRPα with CD47 preferentially occurred in dendritic cells (DCs) but not in macrophages. Mechanistically, CD47 blockade enabled the activation of NADPH oxidase NOX2 in DCs, which in turn inhibited phagosomal acidification and reduced the degradation of tumor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in DCs. mtDNA was recognized by cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in the DC cytosol, contributing to type I interferon (IFN) production and antitumor adaptive immunity. Thus, our findings have demonstrated how tumor cells inhibit innate sensing in DCs and suggested that the CD47-SIRPα axis is critical for DC-driven antitumor immunity.