Xaymardan M et al. (AUG 2009)
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 27 8 1911--20
c-Kit function is necessary for in vitro myogenic differentiation of bone marrow hematopoietic cells.
In recent years, the differentiation of bone marrow cells (BMCs) into myocytes has been extensively investigated, but the findings remain inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions necessary to induce myogenic differentiation in short-term cultures of adult BMCs, and to identify the BMC subpopulation responsible for this phenomenon. We report that high-density cultures of murine hematopoietic BMCs gave rise to spontaneous beating cell clusters in the presence of vascular endothelial and fibroblast growth factors. These clusters originated from c-kit(pos) cells. The formation of the clusters could be completely blocked by adding a c-kit/tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gleevec (imatinib mesylate; Novartis International, Basel, Switzerland, http://www.novartis.com), to the culture. Cluster formation was also blunted in BMCs from c-kit-deficient (Kit(W)/Kit(W-v)) mice. Clustered cells expressed cardiomyocyte-specific transcription factor genes Gata-4 and Nkx2.5, sarcomeric proteins beta-MHC and MLC-2v, and ANF and connexin-43. Immunostaining revealed alpha-sarcomeric actinin expression in more than 90% of clustered cells. Under electron microscopy, the clustered cells exhibited a sarcomeric myofiber arrangement and z-bands. This study defines the microenvironment required to achieve a reproducible in vitro model of beating, myogenic cell clusters. This model could be used to examine the mechanisms responsible for the postnatal myogenic differentiation of BMCs. Our results identify c-kit(pos) bone marrow hematopoietic cells as the source of the myogenic clusters.
S. Korniotis et al. ( 2018)
Frontiers in immunology 9 2007
Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Dependent Participation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Low-Intensity Sterile Inflammation.
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) are characterized by their unique capacities of self-renewal and multi-differentiation potential. This second property makes them able to adapt their differentiation profile depending on the local environment they reach. Taking advantage of an animal model of peritonitis, induced by injection of the TLR-2 ligand, zymosan, we sought to study the relationship between bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (BM-HSPCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regarding their emergence and differentiation at the site of inflammation. Our results demonstrate that the strength of the inflammatory signals affects the capacity of BM-derived HSPCs to migrate and give rise in situ to ILCs. Both low- and high-dose of zymosan injections trigger the appearance of mature ILCs in the peritoneal cavity where the inflammation occurs. Herein, we show that only in low-dose injected mice, the recovered ILCs are dependent on an in situ differentiation of BM-derived HSPCs and/or ILC2 precursors (ILC2P) wherein high-dose, the stronger inflammatory environment seems to be able to induce the emergence of ILCs independently of BM-derived HSPCs. We suggest that a relationship between HSPCs and ILCs seems to be affected by the strength of the inflammatory stimuli opening new perspectives in the manipulation of these early hematopoietic cells.
Chang M-J et al. (DEC 2010)
Cancer research 70 24 10234--42
Histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase Dot1 is required for immortalization by MLL oncogenes.
Chimeric oncoproteins resulting from fusion of MLL to a wide variety of partnering proteins cause biologically distinctive and clinically aggressive acute leukemias. However, the mechanism of MLL-mediated leukemic transformation is not fully understood. Dot1, the only known histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase, has been shown to interact with multiple MLL fusion partners including AF9, ENL, AF10, and AF17. In this study, we utilize a conditional Dot1l deletion model to investigate the role of Dot1 in hematopoietic progenitor cell immortalization by MLL fusion proteins. Western blot and mass spectrometry show that Dot1-deficient cells are depleted of the global H3K79 methylation mark. We find that loss of Dot1 activity attenuates cell viability and colony formation potential of cells immortalized by MLL oncoproteins but not by the leukemic oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1. Although this effect is most pronounced for MLL-AF9, we find that Dot1 contributes to the viability of cells immortalized by other MLL oncoproteins that are not known to directly recruit Dot1. Cells immortalized by MLL fusions also show increased apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of Dot1 in survival pathways. In summary, our data point to a pivotal requirement for Dot1 in MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemogenesis and implicate Dot1 as a potential therapeutic target.
Promoter trapping reveals significant differences in integration site selection between MLV and HIV vectors in primary hematopoietic cells.
Recent reports have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) vectors preferentially integrate into active genes. Here, we used a novel approach based on genetic trapping to rapidly score several thousand integration sites and found that MLV vectors trapped cellular promoters more efficiently than HIV vectors. Remarkably, 1 in 5 MLV integrations trapped an active promoter in different cell lines and primary hematopoietic cells. Such frequency was even higher in growth-stimulated lymphocytes. We show that the different behavior of MLV and HIV vectors was dependent on a different integration pattern within transcribed genes. Whereas MLV-based traps showed a strong bias for promoter-proximal integration leading to efficient reporter expression, HIV-based traps integrated throughout transcriptional units and were limited for expression by the distance from the promoter and the reading frame of the targeted gene. Our results indicate a strong propensity of MLV to establish transcriptional interactions with cellular promoters, a behavior that may have evolved to enhance proviral expression and may increase the insertional mutagenesis risk. Promoter trapping efficiency provides a convenient readout to assess transcriptional interactions between the vector and its flanking genes at the integration site and to compare integration site selection among different cell types and in different growth conditions.
Su YR et al. (AUG 2008)
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 28 8 1439--46
Lentiviral transduction of apoAI into hematopoietic progenitor cells and macrophages: applications to cell therapy of atherosclerosis.
OBJECTIVE: We used genetically engineered mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) to investigate the therapeutic effects of human apoAI on atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lentiviral constructs expressing either human apoAI (LV-apoAI) or green fluorescent protein (LV-GFP) cDNA under a macrophage specific promoter (CD68) were generated and used for ex vivo transduction of mouse HPCs and macrophages. The transduction efficiency was textgreater25% for HPCs and textgreater70% for macrophages. ApoAI was found in the macrophage culture media, mostly associated with the HDL fraction. Interestingly, a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels for ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1 were found in apoAI-expressing macrophages after acLDL loading. Expression of apoAI significantly increased cholesterol efflux in wild-type and apoE(-/-) macrophages. HPCs transduced with LV-apoAI ex vivo and then transplanted into apoE(-/-) mice caused a 50% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion area compared to GFP controls, without influencing plasma HDL-C levels. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral transduction of apoAI into HPCs reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. Expression of apoAI in macrophages improves cholesterol trafficking in wild-type apoE-producing macrophages and causes upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. These novel observations set the stage for a cell therapy approach to atherosclerosis regression, exploiting the cooperation between apoE and apoAI to maximize cholesterol exit from the plaque.
Dudeck A et al. ( 2011)
The European Journal of Immunology 41 7 1883--1893
Mast cells promote Th1 and Th17 responses by modulating dendritic cell maturation and function
Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in the regulation of protective adaptive immune responses against pathogens. However, it is still unclear whether MCs promote such host defense responses via direct effects on T cells or rather by modifying the functions of antigen-presenting cells. To identify the underlying mechanisms of the immunoregulatory capacity of MCs, we investigated the impact of MCs on dendritic cell (DC) maturation and function. We found that murine peritoneal MCs underwent direct crosstalk with immature DCs that induced DC maturation as evidenced by enhanced expression of costimulatory molecules. Furthermore, the MC/DC interaction resulted in the release of the T-cell modulating cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and TGF-β into coculture supernatants and increased the IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TGF-β secretion of LPS-matured DCs. Such MC-primed" DCs subsequently induced efficient CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Surprisingly�
Korniotis S et al. ( 2016)
Nature communications 7 12134
Treatment of ongoing autoimmune encephalomyelitis with activated B-cell progenitors maturing into regulatory B cells.
The influence of signals perceived by immature B cells during their development in bone marrow on their subsequent functions as mature cells are poorly defined. Here, we show that bone marrow cells transiently stimulated in vivo or in vitro through the Toll-like receptor 9 generate proB cells (CpG-proBs) that interrupt experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when transferred at the onset of clinical symptoms. Protection requires differentiation of CpG-proBs into mature B cells that home to reactive lymph nodes, where they trap T cells by releasing the CCR7 ligand, CCL19, and to inflamed central nervous system, where they locally limit immunopathogenesis through interleukin-10 production, thereby cooperatively inhibiting ongoing EAE. These data demonstrate that a transient inflammation at the environment, where proB cells develop, is sufficient to confer regulatory functions onto their mature B-cell progeny. In addition, these properties of CpG-proBs open interesting perspectives for cell therapy of autoimmune diseases.
Chin JY et al. (SEP 2008)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 36 13514--9
Correction of a splice-site mutation in the beta-globin gene stimulated by triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids.
Splice-site mutations in the beta-globin gene can lead to aberrant transcripts and decreased functional beta-globin, causing beta-thalassemia. Triplex-forming DNA oligonucleotides (TFOs) and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have been shown to stimulate recombination in reporter gene loci in mammalian cells via site-specific binding and creation of altered helical structures that provoke DNA repair. We have designed a series of triplex-forming PNAs that can specifically bind to sequences in the human beta-globin gene. We demonstrate here that these PNAs, when cotransfected with recombinatory donor DNA fragments, can promote single base-pair modification at the start of the second intron of the beta-globin gene, the site of a common thalassemia-associated mutation. This single base pair change was detected by the restoration of proper splicing of transcripts produced from a green fluorescent protein-beta-globin fusion gene. The ability of these PNAs to induce recombination was dependent on dose, sequence, cell-cycle stage, and the presence of a homologous donor DNA molecule. Enhanced recombination, with frequencies up to 0.4%, was observed with use of the lysomotropic agent chloroquine. Finally, we demonstrate that these PNAs were effective in stimulating the modification of the endogenous beta-globin locus in human cells, including primary hematopoietic progenitor cells. This work suggests that PNAs can be effective tools to induce heritable, site-specific modification of disease-related genes in human cells.
Pluchino S et al. (OCT 2008)
Brain : a journal of neurology 131 Pt 10 2564--78
Persistent inflammation alters the function of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment.
Endogenous neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are considered a functional reservoir for promoting tissue homeostasis and repair after injury, therefore regenerative strategies that mobilize these cells have recently been proposed. Despite evidence of increased neurogenesis upon acute inflammatory insults (e.g. ischaemic stroke), the plasticity of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment in chronic CNS inflammatory disorders remains poorly characterized. Here we show that persistent brain inflammation, induced by immune cells targeting myelin, extensively alters the proliferative and migratory properties of subventricular zone (SVZ)-resident NPCs in vivo leading to significant accumulation of non-migratory neuroblasts within the SVZ germinal niche. In parallel, we demonstrate a quantitative reduction of the putative brain stem cells proliferation in the SVZ during persistent brain inflammation, which is completely reversed after in vitro culture of the isolated NPCs. Together, these data indicate that the inflamed brain microenvironment sustains a non cell-autonomous dysfunction of the endogenous CNS stem cell compartment and challenge the potential efficacy of proposed therapies aimed at mobilizing endogenous precursors in chronic inflammatory brain disorders.