Goransson O et al. ( 2007)
Journal of Biological Chemistry 282 45 32549--32560
Mechanism of Action of A-769662, a Valuable Tool for Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase
We have studied the mechanism of A-769662, a new activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Unlike other pharmacological activators, it directly activates native rat AMPK by mimicking both effects of AMP, i.e. allosteric activation and inhibition of dephosphorylation. We found that it has no effect on the isolated alpha subunit kinase domain, with or without the associated autoinhibitory domain, or on interaction of glycogen with the beta subunit glycogen-binding domain. Although it mimics actions of AMP, it has no effect on binding of AMP to the isolated Bateman domains of the gamma subunit. The addition of A-769662 to mouse embryonic fibroblasts or primary mouse hepatocytes stimulates phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), effects that are completely abolished in AMPK-alpha1(-/-)alpha2(-/-) cells but not in TAK1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in response to A-769662 is also abolished in isolated mouse skeletal muscle lacking LKB1, a major upstream kinase for AMPK in this tissue. However, in HeLa cells, which lack LKB1 but express the alternate upstream kinase calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta, phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in response to A-769662 still occurs. These results show that in intact cells, the effects of A-769662 are independent of the upstream kinase utilized. We propose that this direct and specific AMPK activator will be a valuable experimental tool to understand the physiological roles of AMPK.
Twu Y-C et al. (DEC 2007)
Blood 110 13 4526--34
I branching formation in erythroid differentiation is regulated by transcription factor C/EBPalpha.
The histo-blood group i and I antigens have been characterized as straight and branched repeats of N-acetyllactosamine, respectively, and the conversion of the straight-chain i to the branched-chain I structure on red cells is regulated to occur after birth. It has been demonstrated that the human I locus expresses 3 IGnT transcripts, IGnTA, IGnTB, and IGnTC, and that the last of these is responsible for the I branching formation on red cells. In the present investigation, the K-562 cell line was used as a model to show that the i-to-I transition in erythroid differentiation is determined by the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), which enhances transcription of the IGnTC gene, consequently leading to formation of the I antigen. Further investigation suggested that C/EBPalpha IGnTC-activation activity is modulated at a posttranslational level, and that the phosphorylation status of C/EBPalpha may have a crucial effect. Results from studies using adult and cord erythropoietic cells agreed with those derived using the K-562 cell model, with lentiviral expression of C/EBPalpha in CD34(+) hemopoietic cells demonstrating the determining role of C/EBPalpha in the induction of the IGnTC gene as well as in I antigen expression.
Rawat VPS et al. (JAN 2008)
Blood 111 1 309--19
Overexpression of CDX2 perturbs HOX gene expression in murine progenitors depending on its N-terminal domain and is closely correlated with deregulated HOX gene expression in human acute myeloid leukemia.
The mechanisms underlying deregulation of HOX gene expression in AML are poorly understood. The ParaHox gene CDX2 was shown to act as positive upstream regulator of several HOX genes. In this study, constitutive expression of Cdx2 caused perturbation of leukemogenic Hox genes such as Hoxa10 and Hoxb8 in murine hematopoietic progenitors. Deletion of the N-terminal domain of Cdx2 abrogated its ability to perturb Hox gene expression and to cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mice. In contrast inactivation of the putative Pbx interacting site of Cdx2 did not change the leukemogenic potential of the gene. In an analysis of 115 patients with AML, expression levels of CDX2 were closely correlated with deregulated HOX gene expression. Patients with normal karyotype showed a 14-fold higher expression of CDX2 and deregulated HOX gene expression compared with patients with chromosomal translocations such as t(8:21) or t(15;17). All patients with AML with normal karyotype tested were negative for CDX1 and CDX4 expression. These data link the leukemogenic potential of Cdx2 to its ability to dysregulate Hox genes. They furthermore correlate the level of CDX2 expression with HOX gene expression in human AML and support a potential role of CDX2 in the development of human AML with aberrant Hox gene expression.