Critchley-Thorne RJ et al. (JUN 2009)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 22 9010--5
Impaired interferon signaling is a common immune defect in human cancer.
Immune dysfunction develops in patients with many cancer types and may contribute to tumor progression and failure of immunotherapy. Mechanisms underlying cancer-associated immune dysfunction are not fully understood. Efficient IFN signaling is critical to lymphocyte function; animals rendered deficient in IFN signaling develop cancer at higher rates. We hypothesized that altered IFN signaling may be a key mechanism of immune dysfunction common to cancer. To address this, we assessed the functional responses to IFN in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with 3 major cancers: breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal cancer. Type-I IFN (IFN-alpha)-induced signaling was reduced in T cells and B cells from all 3 cancer-patient groups compared to healthy controls. Type-II IFN (IFN-gamma)-induced signaling was reduced in B cells from all 3 cancer patient groups, but not in T cells or natural killer cells. Impaired-IFN signaling was equally evident in stage II, III, and IV breast cancer patients, and downstream functional defects in T cell activation were identified. Taken together, these findings indicate that defects in lymphocyte IFN signaling arise in patients with breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal cancer, and these defects may represent a common cancer-associated mechanism of immune dysfunction.
RosetteSep™ Human Granulocyte Depletion Cocktail
RosetteSep™ Human Monocyte Depletion Cocktail
Squatrito M et al. (DEC 2010)
Cancer cell 18 6 619--29
Loss of ATM/Chk2/p53 pathway components accelerates tumor development and contributes to radiation resistance in gliomas.
Maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for adult tissue homeostasis and defects in the DNA-damage response (DDR) machinery are linked to numerous pathologies including cancer. Here, we present evidence that the DDR exerts tumor suppressor activity in gliomas. We show that genes encoding components of the DDR pathway are frequently altered in human gliomas and that loss of elements of the ATM/Chk2/p53 cascade accelerates tumor formation in a glioma mouse model. We demonstrate that Chk2 is required for glioma response to ionizing radiation in vivo and is necessary for DNA-damage checkpoints in the neuronal stem cell compartment. Finally, we observed that the DDR is constitutively activated in a subset of human GBMs, and such activation correlates with regions of hypoxia.
NeuroCult™ Basal Medium (Mouse & Rat)
NeuroCult™ Proliferation Supplement (Mouse & Rat)
NeuroCult™ Proliferation Kit (Mouse & Rat)
Tyagi RK et al. (FEB 2017)
Scientific reports 7 41083
Human IDO-competent, long-lived immunoregulatory dendritic cells induced by intracellular pathogen, and their fate in humanized mice.
Targeting of myeloid-dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN by numerous chronic infectious agents, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is shown to drive-differentiation of monocytes into dysfunctional mDCs. These mDCs exhibit alterations of their fine-tuned homeostatic function and contribute to dysregulated immune-responses. Here, we utilize P. gingivalis mutant strains to show that pathogen-differentiated mDCs from primary human-monocytes display anti-apoptotic profile, exhibited by elevated phosphorylated-Foxo1, phosphorylated-Akt1, and decreased Bim-expression. This results in an overall inhibition of DC-apoptosis. Direct stimulation of complex component CD40 on DCs leads to activation of Akt1, suggesting CD40 involvement in anti-apoptotic effects observed. Further, these DCs drove dampened CD8(+) T-cell and Th1/Th17 effector-responses while inducing CD25(+)Foxp3(+)CD127(-) Tregs. In vitro Treg induction was mediated by DC expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and was confirmed in IDO-KO mouse model. Pathogen-infected &CMFDA-labeled MoDCs long-lasting survival was confirmed in a huMoDC reconstituted humanized mice. In conclusion, our data implicate PDDCs as an important target for resolution of chronic infection.
EasySep™ Human CD14 Positive Selection Kit II
EasySep™ Human CD14 Positive Selection Kit
RosetteSep™ Human Monocyte Enrichment Cocktail
RosetteSep™ Human Monocyte Depletion Cocktail
B. Novotn\'a et al. (dec 2019)
Journal of medicinal chemistry 62 23 10676--10690
Enzymatic Preparation of 2'-5',3'-5'-Cyclic Dinucleotides, Their Binding Properties to Stimulator of Interferon Genes Adaptor Protein, and Structure/Activity Correlations.
Cyclic dinucleotides are second messengers in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, which plays an important role in recognizing tumor cells and viral or bacterial infections. They bind to the STING adaptor protein and trigger expression of cytokines via TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and inhibitor of nuclear factor-$\kappa$B (I$\kappa$B) kinase (IKK)/nuclear factor-$\kappa$B (NF$\kappa$B) signaling cascades. In this work, we describe an enzymatic preparation of 2'-5',3'-5'-cyclic dinucleotides (2'3'CDNs) with use of cyclic GMP-AMP synthases (cGAS) from human, mouse, and chicken. We profile substrate specificity of these enzymes by employing a small library of nucleotide-5'-triphosphate (NTP) analogues and use them to prepare 33 2'3'CDNs. We also determine affinity of these CDNs to five different STING haplotypes in cell-based and biochemical assays and describe properties needed for their optimal activity toward all STING haplotypes. Next, we study their effect on cytokine and chemokine induction by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and evaluate their cytotoxic effect on monocytes. Additionally, we report X-ray crystal structures of two new CDNs bound to STING protein and discuss structure-activity relationship by using quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computational modeling.