Feeney ME et al. (DEC 2003)
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 171 12 6968--75
Reconstitution of virus-specific CD4 proliferative responses in pediatric HIV-1 infection.
Gag-specific CD4 proliferative responses correlate inversely with HIV-1 RNA levels in infected adults, and robust responses are characteristic of long-term nonprogressive infection. However, strong responses are seldom detected in adult subjects with progressive infection and are not generally reconstituted on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, the role of HIV-1-specific Th responses in children has not been thoroughly examined. We characterized Gag-specific CD4 responses among 35 perinatally infected subjects, including 2 children who spontaneously control viremia without antiretroviral therapy, 21 children with viral loads (VL) of textless400 on HAART, and 12 viremic children. Gag-specific Th activity was assessed by lymphoproliferative assay, and responses were mapped using overlapping Gag peptides in an IFN-gamma ELISPOT. Robust proliferative responses were detected in the children exhibiting spontaneous control of viremia, and mapping of targeted Gag regions in one such subject identified multiple epitopes. Among children textgreateror=5 years old, 14 of 17 subjects with VL of textless400 on HAART demonstrated a significant p24 proliferative response (median p24 stimulation index, 20), in contrast with only 1 of 9 viremic children (median p24 stimulation index, 2.0; p = 0.0008). However, no subject younger than 5 years of age possessed a significant response, even when viremia was fully suppressed. When compared with adults with VL of textless400 on HAART, Th responses among children with VL of textless400 were both more frequent (p = 0.009) and of greater magnitude (p = 0.002). These data suggest that children may have a greater intrinsic capacity to reconstitute HIV-1-specific immunity than adults, and may be excellent candidates for immune-based therapies.
RosetteSep™ Human CD8 Depletion Cocktail
Manrique A et al. (AUG 2007)
Journal of virology 81 16 8793--808
In vivo and in vitro escape from neutralizing antibodies 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10.
Recently, passive immunization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2G12, 2F5, and 4E10 provided evidence of the in vivo activity of 2G12 but raised concerns about the function of the two membrane-proximal external region (MPER)-specific MAbs (A. Trkola, H. Kuster, P. Rusert, B. Joos, M. Fischer, C. Leemann, A. Manrique, M. Huber, M. Rehr, A. Oxenius, R. Weber, G. Stiegler, B. Vcelar, H. Katinger, L. Aceto, and H. F. Gunthard, Nat. Med. 11:615-622, 2005). In the light of MPER-targeting vaccines under development, we performed an in-depth analysis of the emergence of mutations conferring resistance to these three MAbs to further elucidate their activity. Clonal analysis of the MPER of plasma virus samples derived during antibody treatment confirmed that no changes in this region had occurred in vivo. Sequence analysis of the 2G12 epitope relevant N-glycosylation sites of viruses derived from 13 patients during the trial supported the phenotypic evaluation, demonstrating that mutations in these sites are associated with resistance. In vitro selection experiments with isolates of four of these individuals corroborated the in vivo finding that virus strains rapidly escape 2G12 pressure. Notably, in vitro resistance mutations differed, in most cases, from those found in vivo. Importantly, in vitro selection with 2F5 and 4E10 demonstrated that resistance to these MAbs can be difficult to achieve and can lead to selection of variants with impaired infectivity. This remarkable vulnerability of the virus to interference within the MPER calls for a further evaluation of the safety and efficacy of MPER-targeting therapeutic and vaccination strategies.