PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.
Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid progenitor cells suggests that the clinically tested PPAR-α agonists we used may improve the efficacy of corticosteroids in treating Epo-resistant anaemias.
ES-Cult™ Fetal Bovine Serum for Maintenance
10% Bovine Serum Albumin in Iscove's MDM
Petzer AL et al. (JUN 1996)
The Journal of experimental medicine 183 6 2551--8
Differential cytokine effects on primitive (CD34+CD38-) human hematopoietic cells: novel responses to Flt3-ligand and thrombopoietin.
A high proportion of the CD34+CD38- cells in normal human marrow are defined as long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) because they can proliferate and differentiate when co-cultured with cytokine-producing stromal feeder layers. In contrast, very few CD34+CD38- cells will divide in cytokine-containing methylcellulose and thus are not classifiable as direct colony-forming cells (CFC), although most can proliferate in serum-free liquid cultures containing certain soluble cytokines. Analysis of the effects of 16 cytokines on CD34+CD38- cells in the latter type of culture showed that Flt3-ligand (FL), Steel factor (SF), and interleukin (IL)-3 were both necessary and sufficient to obtain an approximately 30-fold amplification of the input LTC-IC population within 10 d. As single factors, only FL and thrombopoietin (TPO) stimulated a net increase in LTC-IC within 10 d. Interestingly, a significantly increased proportion of the CFC produced from the TPO-amplified LTC-IC were erythroid. Increases in the number of directly detectable CFC of textgreater 500-fold were also obtainable within 10 d in serum-free cultures of CD34+CD38- cells. However, this required the presence of IL-6 and/or granulocyte/colony-stimulating factor and/or nerve growth factor beta in addition to FL, SF, and IL-3. Also, for this response, the most potent single-acting factor tested was IL-3, not FL. Identification of cytokine combinations that differentially stimulate primitive human hematopoietic cell self-renewal and lineage determination should facilitate analysis of the intracellular pathways that regulate these decisions as well as the development of improved ex vivo expansion and gene transfer protocols.
10% Bovine Serum Albumin in Iscove's MDM
BIT 9500 Serum Substitute
Lansdorp PM and Dragowska W (JUN 1992)
The Journal of experimental medicine 175 6 1501--9
Long-term erythropoiesis from constant numbers of CD34+ cells in serum-free cultures initiated with highly purified progenitor cells from human bone marrow.
To directly study the biological properties of purified hematopoietic colony-forming cell precursors, cells with a CD34+ CD45RAlo CD71lo phenotype were purified from human bone marrow using density separation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and were cultured in serum-free culture medium supplemented with various cytokines. In the presence of interleukin 3 (IL-3), IL-6, erythropoietin, and mast cell growth factor (a c-kit ligand), cell numbers increased approximately 10(6)-fold over a period of 4 wk, and the percentage of cells that expressed transferrin receptors (CD71) increased from less than 0.1% at day 0 to greater than 99% at day 14. Interestingly, the absolute number of CD34+ CD71lo cells did not change during culture. When CD34+ CD71lo cells were sorted from expanded cultures and recultured, extensive cell production was repeated, again without significant changes in the absolute number of cells with the CD34+ CD71lo phenotype that were used to initiate the (sub)cultures. These results document that primitive hematopoietic cells can generate progeny without an apparent decrease in the size of a precursor cell pool.
Goussetis E et al. (OCT 2006)
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 24 10 2279--83
Intracoronary infusion of CD133+ and CD133-CD34+ selected autologous bone marrow progenitor cells in patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy: cell isolation, adherence to the infarcted area, and body distribution.
Central issues in intracoronary infusion (ICI) of bone marrow (BM)-cells to damaged myocardium for improving cardiac function are the cell number that is feasible and safe to be administrated as well as the retention of cells in the target area. Our study addressed these issues in eight patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy undergoing ICI of selected BM-progenitors. We could immunomagnetically isolate 0.8 +/- 0.32 x 10(7) CD133(+) cells and 0.75 +/- 0.24 x 10(7) CD133(-)CD34(+) cells from 310 +/- 40 ml BM. After labeling these cells with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylenamineoxime, they were infused into the infarct-related artery without any complication. Scintigraphic images 1 (eight patients) and 24 hours (four patients) after ICI revealed an uptake of 9.2% +/- 3.6 and 6.8% +/- 2.4 of the total infused radioactivity in the infarcted area of the heart, respectively; the remaining activity was distributed mainly to liver and spleen. We conclude that through ICI of CD133(+) and CD133(-)CD34(+) BM-progenitors a significant number of them are preferentially attracted to and retained in the chronic ischemic myocardium.
Vanheusden K et al. (JAN 2007)
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 25 1 107--14
In vitro expanded cells contributing to rapid severe combined immunodeficient repopulation activity are CD34+38-33+90+45RA-.
Expansion of hematopoietic stem cells could be used clinically to shorten the prolonged aplastic phase after umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. In this report, we investigated rapid severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) repopulating activity (rSRA) 2 weeks after transplantation of CD34(+) UCB cells cultured with serum on MS5 stromal cells and in serum- and stroma-free cultures. Various subpopulations obtained after culture were studied for rSRA. CD34(+) expansion cultures resulted in vast expansion of CD45(+) and CD34(+) cells. Independent of the culture method, only the CD34(+)33(+)38(-) fraction of the cultured cells contained rSRA. Subsequently, we subfractionated the CD34(+)38(-) fraction using stem cell markers CD45RA and CD90. In vitro differentiation cultures showed CD34(+) expansion in both CD45RA(-) and CD90(+) cultures, whereas little increase in CD34(+) cells was observed in both CD45RA(+) and CD90(-) cultures. By four-color flow cytometry, we could demonstrate that CD34(+)38(-)45RA(-) and CD34(+)38(-)90(+) cell populations were largely overlapping. Both populations were able to reconstitute SCID/nonobese diabetic mice at 2 weeks, indicating that these cells contained rSRA activity. In contrast, CD34(+)38(-)45RA(+) or CD34(+)38(-)90(-) cells contributed only marginally to rSRA. Similar results were obtained when cells were injected intrafemorally, suggesting that the lack of reconstitution was not due to homing defects. In conclusion, we show that after in vitro expansion, rSRA is mediated by CD34(+)38(-)90(+)45RA(-) cells. All other cell fractions have limited reconstitutive potential, mainly because the cells have lost stem cell activity rather than because of homing defects. These findings can be used clinically to assess the rSRA of cultured stem cells.
Amplification of Sca-1+ Lin- WGA+ cells in serum-free cultures containing steel factor, interleukin-6, and erythropoietin with maintenance of cells with long-term in vivo reconstituting potential.
Normal murine bone marrow (BM) cells were sorted on the basis of low forward and orthogonal light scatter properties, Sca-1 expression (Sca-1+), lack of staining with a cocktail of mature hematopoietic lineage markers (Lin-), and binding of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA+). This approach allowed the reproducible isolation of a very small subpopulation (0.037% +/- 0.023% of all nucleated BM cells) that was approximately 400-fold enriched in cells capable of reconstituting both lymphoid and myeloid lineages in lethally irradiated recipients. Transplantation of 30 or 10 of these Sca-1+Lin-WGA+ cells resulted in textgreater or = to 20% donor-derived nucleated peripheral blood cells 3 months posttransplantation in 100% and 22% of the recipients, respectively. When Sca-1+Lin-WGA+ cells were cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with Steel factor, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and erythropoietin (with or without IL-3), a large increase in total cell number, including cells with an Sca-1+Lin-WGA+ phenotype was observed. Single cell cultures showed that 90% to 95% of the input cells underwent at least one division during the first 2 weeks and the remainder died. Interestingly, this proliferative response was not accompanied by a parallel increase in the number of cells with both lymphoid and myeloid repopulating potential in vivo, as quantitation of these by limiting dilution analysis showed they had decreased slightly (1.3-fold) but not significantly below the number initially present. These results demonstrate that Sca-1+Lin-WGA+ cells with long-term repopulating potential can be maintained for 2 weeks in a serum- and stroma cell-free culture, providing a simple in vitro system to study their behavior under well-defined conditions. The observed expansion of Sca-1+Lin-WGA+ cells in vitro without a concomitant increase in reconstituting cells also shows that extensive functional heterogeneity exists within populations of cells with this surface phenotype.
Lack of expression of Thy-1 (CD90) on acute myeloid leukemia cells with long-term proliferative ability in vitro and in vivo.
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is thought to be maintained by a small population of leukemic progenitor cells. To define the phenotype of such cells with long-term proliferative capacity in vitro and in vivo, we have used the production of leukemic clonogenic cells (CFU) after 2 to 8 weeks in suspension culture as a measure of these cells in vitro and compared their phenotype with that of cells capable of engrafting nonobese diabetic severe combined immune deficient (NOD/SCID) mice. Leukemic blast peripheral blood cells were evaluated for expression of CD34 and Thy-1 (CD90) antigens. The majority of AML blast cells at diagnosis lacked expression of Thy-1. Most primary CFU-blast and the CFU detected at up to 8 weeks from suspension cultures were CD34+/Thy-1-. AML cells that were capable of engrafting NOD/SCID mice were also found to have the CD34+/Thy-1- phenotype. However, significant engraftment was achieved using both CD34+/Thy-1- and CD34- subfractions from one AML M5 patient. These results suggest that while heterogeneity exists between individual patients, the leukemic progenitor cells that are capable of maintaining the disease in vitro and in vivo differ from normal hematopoietic progenitor cells in their lack of expression of Thy-1.
Bhatia M et al. (AUG 1997)
The Journal of experimental medicine 186 4 619--24
Quantitative analysis reveals expansion of human hematopoietic repopulating cells after short-term ex vivo culture.
Ex vivo culture of human hematopoietic cells is a crucial component of many therapeutic applications. Although current culture conditions have been optimized using quantitative in vitro progenitor assays, knowledge of the conditions that permit maintenance of primitive human repopulating cells is lacking. We report that primitive human cells capable of repopulating nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice (SCID-repopulating cells; SRC) can be maintained and/or modestly increased after culture of CD34+CD38- cord blood cells in serum-free conditions. Quantitative analysis demonstrated a 4- and 10-fold increase in the number of CD34+CD38- cells and colony-forming cells, respectively, as well as a 2- to 4-fold increase in SRC after 4 d of culture. However, after 9 d of culture, all SRC were lost, despite further increases in total cells, CFC content, and CD34+ cells. These studies indicate that caution must be exercised in extending the duration of ex vivo cultures used for transplantation, and demonstrate the importance of the SRC assay in the development of culture conditions that support primitive cells.
Lemieux ME et al. (AUG 1997)
Experimental hematology 25 9 951--7
Differential ability of flt3-ligand, interleukin-11, and Steel factor to support the generation of B cell progenitors and myeloid cells from primitive murine fetal liver cells.
A variety of factors produced by stromal fibroblasts, including Flt3-ligand (FL), interleukin-11 (IL-11), Steel factor (SF), and IL-7, have been implicated in stimulating the production of pre-B cells and myeloid cells from primitive hematopoietic precursors. To investigate their relative roles in this process, either as single-acting or synergistic agents, we compared the yield and types of cells produced after 2 weeks from small numbers of Sca-1+ Lin- (i.e., B220-, Ly-1-, Gr-1-, and Ter-119-) day 14.5 murine fetal liver cells placed in stromal cell-free cultures containing all possible combinations of FL, SF, IL-7, and IL-11. None of these factors alone supported the production (or survival) of any cells beyond 1 week: only pairs of factors consisting of either FL or SF plus either IL-11 or IL-7 were effective in this regard, with FL plus IL-11 being the most potent pair (approximately 7 x 10(4) cells obtained per 100 Sca-1+ Lin- input cells). The maximum numbers of cells were produced in the presence of FL, IL-11, and IL-7: these included both B220+ and Mac-1+/Gr-1+ cells (approximately 10(6) and approximately 2 x 10(5), respectively, per 100 Sca-1+ Lin- input cells). Both of these lineages were also obtained with each of the other possible three-factor combinations, albeit with variable effectiveness. Omission of either FL or IL-7 caused the greatest reduction in the yield of B220+ cells (approximately 130-fold and approximately 80-fold, respectively). Omission of IL-11 and, to a lesser extent, FL caused the greatest reduction in the yield of Mac-1+/Gr-1+ cells (approximately 90-fold and approximately 3-fold, respectively). When fetal calf serum was replaced with a defined serum substitute, the out put of B220+ cells remained the same but myelopoiesis was consistently enhanced (approximately 5- to 20-fold). These findings support a model involving factor redundancy in the extracellular signals required to stimulate the production and amplification of both lymphoid and myeloid cells from early Sca-1+ Lin- cells. They also reveal quantitative differences in the abilities of different competent factor combinations to promote this process, which may be further modulated by the presence of undefined serum components.
Miller CL and Eaves CJ (DEC 1997)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 25 13648--53
Expansion in vitro of adult murine hematopoietic stem cells with transplantable lympho-myeloid reconstituting ability.
Elucidation of mechanisms that regulate hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation would be facilitated by the identification of defined culture conditions that allow these cells to be amplified. We now demonstrate a significant net increase (3-fold, P textless 0.001) in vitro of cells that are individually able to permanently and competitively reconstitute the lymphoid and myeloid systems of syngeneic recipient mice when Sca-1(+)lin- adult marrow cells are incubated for 10 days in serum-free medium with interleukin 11, flt3-ligand, and Steel factor. Moreover, the culture-derived repopulating cells continued to expand their numbers in the primary hosts at the same rate seen in recipients of noncultured stem cells. In the expansion cultures, long-term culture-initiating cells increased 7- +/- 2-fold, myeloid colony-forming cells increased 140- +/- 36-fold, and total nucleated cells increased 230- +/- 62-fold. Twenty-seven of 100 cultures initiated with 15 Sca-1(+)lin- marrow cells were found to contain transplantable stem cells 10 days later. This frequency of positive cultures is the same as the frequency of transplantable stem cells in the original input suspension, suggesting that most had undergone at least one self-renewal division in vitro. No expansion of stem cells was seen when Sca-1+TER119- CD34+ day 14.5 fetal liver cells were cultured under the same conditions. These findings set the stage for further investigations of the mechanisms by which cytokine stimulation may elicit different outcomes in mitotically activated hematopoietic stem cells during ontogeny and in the adult.
Efficient retroviral-mediated gene transfer to human cord blood stem cells with in vivo repopulating potential.
Recent studies have shown efficient gene transfer to primitive progenitors in human cord blood (CB) when the cells are incubated in retrovirus-containing supernatants on fibronectin-coated dishes. We have now used this approach to achieve efficient gene transfer to human CB cells with the capacity to regenerate lymphoid and myeloid progeny in nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. CD34(+) cell-enriched populations were first cultured for 3 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Flt3-ligand, and Steel factor followed by two 24-hour incubations with a MSCV-NEO virus-containing medium obtained under either serum-free or serum-replete conditions. The presence of serum during the latter 2 days made no consistent difference to the total number of cells, colony-forming cells (CFC), or long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) recovered at the end of the 5-day culture period, and the cells infected under either condition regenerated similar numbers of human CD34(+) (myeloid) CFC and human CD19(+) (B lymphoid) cells for up to 20 weeks in NOD/SCID recipients. However, the presence of serum increased the viral titer in the producer cell-conditioned medium and this was correlated with a twofold to threefold higher efficiency of gene transfer to all progenitor types. With the higher titer viral supernatant, 17% +/- 3% and 17% +/- 8%, G418-resistant in vivo repopulating cells and LTC-IC were obtained. As expected, the proportion of NEO + repopulating cells determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis of in vivo generated CFC was even higher (32% +/- 10%). There was no correlation between the frequency of gene transfer to LTC-IC and colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), or to NOD/SCID repopulating cells and CFU-GM (r2 = 0.16 and 0.17, respectively), whereas values for LTC-IC and NOD/SCID repopulating cells were highly and significantly correlated (r2 = 0.85). These findings provide further evidence of a close relationship between human LTC-IC and NOD/SCID repopulating cells (assessed using a textgreater/= 6-week CFC output endpoint) and indicate the predictive value of gene transfer measurements to such LTC-IC for the design of clinical gene therapy protocols.