Penumatsa K et al. (JAN 2010)
Journal of ovarian research 3 28
Differential expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (ALDH1) in normal ovary and serous ovarian tumors.
BACKGROUND: We showed there are specific ALDH1 autoantibodies in ovarian autoimmune disease and ovarian cancer, suggesting a role for ALDH1 in ovarian pathology. However, there is little information on the ovarian expression of ALDH1. Therefore, we compared ALDH1 expression in normal ovary and benign and malignant ovarian tumors to determine if ALDH1 expression is altered in ovarian cancer. Since there is also recent interest in ALDH1 as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, we assessed co-expression of ALDH1 with CSC markers in order to determine if ALDH1 is a potential CSC marker in ovarian cancer. METHODS: mRNA and protein expression were compared in normal human ovary and serous ovarian tumors using quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase PCR, Western blot (WB) and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC). ALDH1 enzyme activity was confirmed in primary ovarian cells by flow cytometry (FC) using ALDEFLUOR assay. RESULTS: ALDH1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced (p textless 0.01; n = 5) in malignant tumors compared to normal ovaries and benign tumors. The proportion of ALDH1+ cells was significantly lower in malignant tumors (17.1 ± 7.61%; n = 5) compared to normal ovaries (37.4 ± 5.4%; p textless 0.01; n = 5) and benign tumors (31.03 ± 6.68%; p textless 0.05; n = 5). ALDH1+ cells occurred in the stroma and surface epithelium in normal ovary and benign tumors, although surface epithelial expression varied more in benign tumors. Localization of ALDH1 was heterogeneous in malignant tumor cells and little ALDH1 expression occurred in poorly differentiated malignant tumors. In benign tumors the distribution of ALDH1 had features of both normal ovary and malignant tumors. ALDH1 protein expression assessed by IHC, WB and FC was positively correlated (p textless 0.01). ALDH1 did not appear to be co-expressed with the CSC markers CD44, CD117 and CD133 by IHC. CONCLUSIONS: Total ALDH1 expression is significantly reduced in malignant ovarian tumors while it is relatively unchanged in benign tumors compared to normal ovary. Thus, ALDH1 expression in the ovary does not appear to be similar to breast, lung or colon cancer suggesting possible functional differences in these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that reduced ALDH1 expression is associated with malignant transformation in ovarian cancer and provides a basis for further study of the mechanism of ALDH1 in this process.
DNase I Solution (1 mg/mL)
Kang L et al. ( 2013)
Frontiers in immunology 4 MAY 101
Characterization and ex vivo Expansion of Human Placenta-Derived Natural Killer Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Recent clinical studies suggest that adoptive transfer of donor-derived natural killer (NK) cells may improve clinical outcome in hematological malignancies and some solid tumors by direct anti-tumor effects as well as by reduction of graft versus host disease (GVHD). NK cells have also been shown to enhance transplant engraftment during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematological malignancies. The limited ex vivo expansion potential of NK cells from peripheral blood (PB) or umbilical cord blood (UCB) has however restricted their therapeutic potential. Here we define methods to efficiently generate NK cells from donor-matched, full-term human placenta perfusate (termed Human Placenta-Derived Stem Cell, HPDSC) and UCB. Following isolation from cryopreserved donor-matched HPDSC and UCB units, CD56+CD3- placenta-derived NK cells, termed pNK cells, were expanded in culture for up to 3 weeks to yield an average of 1.2 billion cells per donor that were textgreater80% CD56+CD3-, comparable to doses previously utilized in clinical applications. Ex vivo-expanded pNK cells exhibited a marked increase in anti-tumor cytolytic activity coinciding with the significantly increased expression of NKG2D, NKp46, and NKp44 (p textless 0.001, p textless 0.001, and p textless 0.05, respectively). Strong cytolytic activity was observed against a wide range of tumor cell lines in vitro. pNK cells display a distinct microRNA (miRNA) expression profile, immunophenotype, and greater anti-tumor capacity in vitro compared to PB NK cells used in recent clinical trials. With further development, pNK may represent a novel and effective cellular immunotherapy for patients with high clinical needs and few other therapeutic options.
DNase I Solution (1 mg/mL)
EasySep™ Human NK Cell Enrichment Kit
Elliott G et al. (DEC 2015)
Nature Communications 6 1 6363
Intermediate DNA methylation is a conserved signature of genome regulation
The role of intermediate methylation states in DNA is unclear. Here, to comprehensively identify regions of intermediate methylation and their quantitative relationship with gene activity, we apply integrative and comparative epigenomics to 25 human primary cell and tissue samples. We report 18,452 intermediate methylation regions located near 36% of genes and enriched at enhancers, exons and DNase I hypersensitivity sites. Intermediate methylation regions average 57% methylation, are predominantly allele-independent and are conserved across individuals and between mouse and human, suggesting a conserved function. These regions have an intermediate level of active chromatin marks and their associated genes have intermediate transcriptional activity. Exonic intermediate methylation correlates with exon inclusion at a level between that of fully methylated and unmethylated exons, highlighting gene context-dependent functions. We conclude that intermediate DNA methylation is a conserved signature of gene regulation and exon usage.