Kwant-Mitchell A et al. (OCT 2009)
Journal of virology 83 20 10664--76
Mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses against herpes simplex virus type 2 in a humanized mouse model.
Genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide and a risk factor for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although many vaccine candidates have shown promising results in animal models, they have failed to be effective in human trials. In this study, a humanized mouse strain was evaluated as a potential preclinical model for studying human immune responses to HSV-2 infection and vaccination. Immunodeficient mouse strains were examined for their abilities to develop human innate and adaptive immune cells after transplantation of human umbilical cord stem cells. A RAG2(-/-) gammac(-/-) mouse strain with a BALB/c background was chosen as the most appropriate model and was then examined for its ability to mount innate and adaptive immune responses to intravaginal HSV-2 infection and immunization. After primary infection, human cells in the lymph nodes were able to generate a protective innate immune response and produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). After intravaginal immunization and infection, human T cells and NK cells were found in the genital tract and iliac lymph nodes. In addition, human T cells in the spleen, lymph nodes, and vaginal tract were able to respond to stimulation with HSV-2 antigens by replicating and producing IFN-gamma. Human B cells were also able to produce HSV-2-specific immunoglobulin G. These adaptive responses were also shown to be protective and reduce local viral replication in the genital tract. This approach provides a means for studying human immune responses in vivo using a small-animal model and may become an important preclinical tool.
Lee S-K et al. (MAR 2015)
EBioMedicine 2 3 225--33
Response of Neutrophils to Extracellular Haemoglobin and LTA in Human Blood System.
BACKGROUND Haemolytic infection lyses red blood cells, releasing haemoglobin (Hb) into the plasma. Although recent studies showed that immune cells recognize redox-active cytotoxic extracellular Hb (metHb) bound to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), currently available information is limited to experiments performed in defined conditions using single cell lines. Therefore, a systemic approach targeting primary whole blood cells is required to better understand the cellular immune defence against metHb and PAMPs, when under a haemolytic infection. METHODS We investigated how human white blood cells, including neutrophils, respond to metHb and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS), signalling mediators (ERK and p38), NF-κB, cytokines, elastase secretion and cell activation markers. FINDINGS metHb activates NF-κB in TLR2-expressing HEK293 cells but not in normal or TLR9-expressing HEK293 cells. Treatment of isolated neutrophils with metHb increased production of ROS and expressions of IL-8, TNFα, and CD11b, which were further enhanced by metHb + LTA complex. While LTA stimulated the survival of neutrophils, it caused apoptotic cell death when complexed with metHb. The activation of neutrophils by metHb + LTA was subdued by the presence of other types of white blood cells. INTERPRETATION metHb and metHb + LTA complex are ligands of TLR2, inducing an unconventional TLR signalling pathway. Neutrophils are a highly sensitive cell type to metHb + LTA complex. During a haemolytic infection, white blood cells in the vicinity crosstalk to modulate neutrophil TLR-signalling induced by metHb and LTA.
EasySep™ Human Glycophorin A Depletion Kit
Hazell AS et al. (MAR 2014)
Metabolic Brain Disease 29 1 145--152
Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency alters proliferation and neurogenesis in both neurogenic and vulnerable areas of the rat brain
Thiamine deficiency (TD) leads to Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), in which focal histological lesions occur in periventricular areas of the brain. Recently, impaired neurogenesis has been reported in the hippocampus during the dietary form of TD, and in pyrithiamine-induced TD (PTD), a well-characterized model of WE. To further characterize the consequences of PTD on neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) activity, we have examined the effect of this treatment in the rat on both the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the rostral lateral ventricle and subgranular layer (SGL) of the hippocampus, and in the thalamus and inferior colliculus, two vulnerable brain regions in this disorder. In both the SVZ and SGL, PTD led to a decrease in the numbers of bromodeoxyuridine-stained cells, indicating that proliferation of NSPCs destined for neurogenesis in these areas was reduced. Doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining in the SGL was decreased, indicating a reduction in neuroblast formation, consistent with impaired NSPC activity. DCX labeling was not apparent in focal areas of vulnerability. In the thalamus, proliferation of cells was absent while in the inferior colliculus, numerous actively dividing cells were apparent, indicative of a differential response between these two brain regions. Exposure of cultured neurospheres to PTD resulted in decreased proliferation of NSPCs, consistent with our in vivo findings. Together, these results indicate that PTD considerably affects cell proliferation and neurogenesis activity in both neurogenic areas and parts of the brain known to display structural and functional vulnerability, confirming and extending recent findings on the effects of TD on neurogenesis. Future use of NSPCs in vitro may allow a closer and more detailed examination of the mechanism(s) underlying inhibition of these cells during TD.