Lee S-HH et al. (JUN 2000)
Nature biotechnology 18 6 675--9
Efficient generation of midbrain and hindbrain neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are clonal cell lines derived from the inner cell mass of the developing blastocyst that can proliferate extensively in vitro and are capable of adopting all the cell fates in a developing embryo. Clinical interest in the use of ES cells has been stimulated by studies showing that isolated human cells with ES properties from the inner cell mass or developing germ cells can provide a source of somatic precursors. Previous studies have defined in vitro conditions for promoting the development of specific somatic fates, specifically, hematopoietic, mesodermal, and neurectodermal. In this study, we present a method for obtaining dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic neurons in high yield from mouse ES cells in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ES cells can be obtained in unlimited numbers and that these neuron types are generated efficiently. We generated CNS progenitor populations from ES cells, expanded these cells and promoted their differentiation into dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the presence of mitogen and specific signaling molecules. The differentiation and maturation of neuronal cells was completed after mitogen withdrawal from the growth medium. This experimental system provides a powerful tool for analyzing the molecular mechanisms controlling the functions of these neurons in vitro and in vivo, and potentially for understanding and treating neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.
ES-Cult™ Fetal Bovine Serum for Maintenance
CD-1 Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts, Day E12.5
CD-1 Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts, Day E14.5
Neomycin-Resistant Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts, Day E13.5
Hygromycin-Resistant Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts, Day E13.5
Puromycin-Resistant Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts, Day E13.5
M.-Y. Lin et al. (NOV 2017)
Scientific reports 7 1 14883
Zika Virus Infects Intermediate Progenitor Cells and Post-mitotic Committed Neurons in Human Fetal Brain Tissues.
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is associated with microcephaly in fetuses, but the pathogenesis of ZIKV-related microcephaly is not well understood. Here we show that ZIKV infects the subventricular zone in human fetal brain tissues and that the tissue tropism broadens with the progression of gestation. Our research demonstrates also that intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) are the main target cells for ZIKV. Post-mitotic committed neurons become susceptible to ZIKV infection as well at later stages of gestation. Furthermore, activation of microglial cells, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis of infected or uninfected cells could be found in ZIKV-infected brain tissues. Our studies identify IPCs as the main target cells for ZIKV. They also suggest that immune activation after ZIKV infection may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ZIKV-related microcephaly.