BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a recognized risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment (CI) and/or dementia, although the exact nature of the molecular pathology of T2D-associated CI remains obscure. One link between T2D and CI might involve decreased insulin signaling in brain and/or neurons in either animal or postmortem human brains as has been reported as a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we asked if neuronal insulin resistance is a cell autonomous phenomenon in a familial form of AD. METHODS We have applied a newly developed protocol for deriving human basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) from skin fibroblasts via induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. We generated wildtype and familial AD mutant PSEN2 N141I (presenilin 2) BFCNs and assessed if insulin signaling, insulin regulation of the major AD proteins Abeta$ and/or tau, and/or calcium fluxes is altered by the PSEN2 N141I mutation. RESULTS We report herein that wildtype, PSEN2 N141I and CRISPR/Cas9-corrected iPSC-derived BFCNs (and their precursors) show indistinguishable insulin signaling profiles as determined by the phosphorylation of canonical insulin signaling pathway molecules. Chronic insulin treatment of BFCNs of all genotypes led to a reduction in the Abeta$42/40 ratio. Unexpectedly, we found a CRISPR/Cas9-correctable effect of PSEN2 N141I on calcium flux, which could be prevented by chronic exposure of BFCNs to insulin. CONCLUSIONS Our studies indicate that the familial AD mutation PSEN2 N141I does not induce neuronal insulin resistance in a cell autonomous fashion. The ability of insulin to correct calcium fluxes and to lower Abeta$42/40 ratio suggests that insulin acts to oppose an AD-pathophysiology. Hence, our results are consistent with a potential physiological role for insulin as a mediator of resilience by counteracting specific metabolic and molecular features of AD.
BrainPhys™ Neuronal Medium
BrainPhys™ Without Phenol Red
Amory JK et al. ( )
Journal of andrology 32 1 111--9
Suppression of spermatogenesis by bisdichloroacetyldiamines is mediated by inhibition of testicular retinoic acid biosynthesis.
The bisdichloroacetyldiamine WIN 18,446 reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis in many species, including humans; however, the mechanism by which WIN 18,446 functions is unknown. As retinoic acid is essential for spermatogenesis, we hypothesized that WIN 18,446 might inhibit retinoic acid biosynthesis from retinol (vitamin A) within the testes by inhibiting the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a2 (ALDH1a2). We studied the effect of WIN 18,446 on ALDH1a2 enzyme activity in vitro, and on spermatogenesis and fertility in vivo, in mature male rabbits for 16 weeks. WIN 18,446 markedly inhibited ALDH1a2 enzyme activity in vitro with an IC(50) of 0.3 μM. In vivo, the oral administration of 200 mg/kg WIN 18,446 to male rabbits for 16 weeks significantly reduced intratesticular concentrations of retinoic acid, severely impaired spermatogenesis, and caused infertility. Reduced concentrations of intratesticular retinoic acid were apparent after only 4 weeks of treatment and preceded the decrease in sperm counts and the loss of mature germ cells in tissue samples. Sperm counts and fertility recovered after treatment was discontinued. These findings demonstrate that bisdichloroacetyldiamines such as WIN 18,446 reversibly suppress spermatogenesis via inhibition of testicular retinoic acid biosynthesis by ALDH1a2. These findings suggest that ALDH1a2 is a promising target for the development of a reversible, nonhormonal male contraceptive.